Dance, as an art, in all its different forms, requires much athleticism to perform the many complicated movement patterns, body positions, and partnering in various choreographic endeavours. The dancers must accomplish this at various tempos, including explosive movements, aerial work, and holding difficult positions for lengths of time.
In training and performing the art of dance, the dancer may risk injury, due to several factors that will be discussed further.Representative common injuries found in dance. A few predisposing factors can increase the likelihood of injury if not addressed or maintained with proper exercises and therapy.
• Genetic factors (e.g., scoliosis, hyper mobility syndrome, pes planus, angulation of femoral head, and leg length discrepancy)
• Intrinsic physiological factors (e.g., muscle imbalance, faulty movement patterns, and poor nutrition)
• Extrinsic factors (e.g., duration of training, volume of training, quality of training, training equipment/costumes, floor type, and choreography)
Some biomechanical causes of injuries prevalent among dancers can be due to
• Increased pronatory forces caused by the high degree of turnout demanded in some forms of dance.
• Increased torque in the knee and hip to accommodate the required range of motion utilized in various dance forms, especially with the extremity loaded.
• General increased flexibility among dancers, coupled with the poor intrinsic muscular control and/or fatigue, which may lead to overload of the spinal column. Inadequate flexibility can also be a factor.
Some epidemiological studies for injuries among dancers indicate the following:
1. Back injuries are the most prevalent, ranging from 31% for professional dancers to as high as 82% in surveyed professional ballet dancers. In addition, one survey of dancers with scoliosis reported a history of chronic or recurrent low back pain.
2. Hip injuries are reported as high as 11% in ballet dancers and 4% in contemporary dancers.
3. Knee injury prevalence ranged from 9% to 17%.
4. Foot injury prevalence ranged from 38% to 48.5% in both modern and ballet dancers .
5. Upper extremity injuries in dancers are poorly reported.However, in break dancers 23% of injuries were to the hand, 9% in the shoulder and 7.5% in the wrist.With proper training and good maintenance of muscle balance and stability, people with these issues can have successful and satisfying dance careers.