Paralysis is the loss of muscle function in part of your body. It happens when something goes wrong with the way messages pass between your brain and muscles. Paralysis can be complete or partial. It can occur on one or both sides of your body. It can also occur in just one area, or it can be widespread. Paralysis of the lower half of your body, including both legs, is called paraplegia. Paralysis of the arms and legs is quadriplegia. Most paralysis is due to strokes or injuries such as spinal cord injury or a broken neck. Other causes of paralysis include

  • Nerve diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • Autoimmune diseases such as Guillain-Barre syndrome
  • Bell's palsy, which affects muscles in the face. 

Types of Paralysis:

1. Paraplegia: It occurs usually owing to injury or illness of neural structure and occurs in both the legs. it's generally amid loss of sensation below the extent of injury and disturbed bladder perform.

2. Diplegia: This type of palsy involves either side of the body, and severely affects the legs than the arms. Cerebral paralysis is way additional severe and dangerous when the harm is widespread.

3. Hemiplegia: It's palsy of one aspect of the body, when movements of face ar affected additional severely than those of the leg. it's caused by illness of the other (contralateral) hemisphere of the brain.

4. Monoplegia: It's palsy of a single a part of the body.

5. Poliomyelitis: It's caused by an infective virus that affects the Central system. This disorder is commonest in those areas wherever there is poor sanitation infantile paralysis is common are most areas in our country, however the illness are often controlled.

You are at higher risk of paralysis if:

1. If you smoke.

2. If there is a family history.

3. If you suffer from high blood pressure.

4. If you do not indulge in adequate physical activity.

5. If you are obese.

6. If Bell’s Palsy runs in your family.

7. If you have high cholesterol levels.


The most important causes of paralysis are:

1. Myopathy:

Conditions which cause paralysis by directly inducing muscle weakness include:

*Congenital diseases, mostly genetic, that cause muscle impairment, such as muscular dystrophy.

*Inflammatory or autoimmune conditions of muscle inflammation, such as dermatomyositis and polymyositis.

*Drug-induced myopathy, as following statin or steroid treatment.

*Myopathy following alcohol abuse.

*Post-viral myositis.

2. Neuropathy:

*Neurological causes may be due to disease, toxicity, or injury to one or more nerves.

*Focal nerve injury causes paralysis of the muscle supplied by that nerve.

*Peripheral neuropathy is seen in conditions like:

*Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Bell’s palsy

*Vitamin B12 deficiency


*Heavy metal poisoning

*Snake bite

*Focal mononeuropathy

*Paralysis at the neuromuscular junction occurs in:


*Guillain-Barre syndrome, which is associated with viral infections, either by direct viral damage to the nerves, or as a result of hyperimmune responses to the viral antigens.

*Myasthenia gravis

*Lyme’s disease

*Organophosphate poisoning which paralyzes nerve conduction.


The prime symptom of paralysis is the incapacity to move a part of your body, or failure to move the entire body. Paralysis can begin all of a sudden or gradually. In some cases it comes and goes. Paralysis can have an effect on any given part of the body, such as:

1. Face

2. Hands

3. When only one leg or arm is affected, it is called monoplegia

4. When one side of the body is affected it is called hemiplegia

5. If both the legs get affected, it is called paraplegia

6. If both arms and legs are affected, it is known as quadriplegia or tetraplegia

7. The part of the body which is affected can be:

8. Stiff (this is spastic paralysis), with sporadic muscle spasms.

9. Floppy ( this is flaccid paralysis).

10. Numb, sore or prickly. 


The doctor is able to diagnose paralysis in few simple steps. There are variations in level of consciousness in the body. You feel confused and dizzy. The body loses coordination. There is change in the vision. There is loss of power or numbness in legs, arms or both. Doctor will conduct tests such as electromyography, imaging scans, CT scans and blood tests to be sure.

Complications of paralysis:

Paralysis causes major changes in overall functioning of the body. People lose their sense of taste, balance etc. Once any damage is caused, it is permanent, as the spinal cord cannot cure itself. There can be temporary relief of spasm and pain by using painkillers etc. 

Treatment for paralysis:

1. Physical therapy is used to treat paralysis usually. Treatments such as heat massage, physiotherapy and exercise are done to stimulate the nerves and muscles. Functional Electrical stimulation is used in some cases to offer help to the patient.

2. Occupational therapy concentrates on ways to perform activities of daily living.

3. Mobility aids include manual and electric wheelchairs and scooters.

4. Supportive devices include braces, canes, and walkers.

5. Assistive technology such as voice-activated computers, lighting systems, and telephones.

6. Adaptive equipment such as special eating utensils and controls for driving a car.


1. Hip Rotation Exercise:-

*Lie down on the back and place the legs straight. The therapist will hold one leg by keeping a hand on the thigh and another just below the knee to give support.*Your therapist will then help you gently bend the knee upwards towards your chest. The ideal position will be a 90-degree angle that will form around the knee and hip area.

*The therapist will then gently pull your leg towards him or her and again push it away to the opposite side. Repeat this for 10 times with one leg and then with the other.

2. Variation Of Hip Rotation Exercise:-

*Lie down on the back and place your legs straight. The therapist will stand on one side and hold your leg and place one or two hands on the leg for support.

*The therapist will help to roll your leg inward in such a way that your big toe touches the bed. Next, the therapist will help you roll your leg in such a way that your little toe will touch the bed. Repeat this for 10 times with one leg and then with the other.

3. Ankle Rotation Exercise:-

*For the ankle rotation exercise, you can sit down or lie down, depending on what is more comfortable for you.

*The therapist will take one ankle in each hand and help to rotate your foot and your ankle in circular motions. Repeat this for 10 times with each foot.

4. Toe Rotation Exercise:-

*For the toe rotation exercise, the therapist will help to curl your toes in a downward motion so that the toes go towards the bottom part of your foot.

*The therapist will then gently straighten and stretch out each toe.

*Repeat this for 10 times with each leg.

5. Leg Rotation Exercise:-

* Lie down on the back and place your legs straight. The therapist will provide support to the knee joint and the ankle as you move one leg outward and then take it inward.

* While doing so, you have to lift the leg a little so that it crosses over the other leg. The therapist will help you return to the starting position and repeat the same with the other leg and do more repetitions.

6. Physical Conditioning:-

Balance, coordination and stability are the foundation of starting an exercise program for a partially paralyzed patient, which in turn improve gait and mobility. Active or passive range of motion exercises will help prevent muscles from atrophying, whether full use of the limb is regained or not. Physical conditioning promoted through passive range of motion may improve strength and help the patient to adapt or learn how to gain as much use from damaged limbs as possible.