Good nutrition retards the ageing process, increases immunity, wound healing and protects against various skin diseases.

Alcohol has an adverse effect on particularly B-complex, Zinc, and Magnesium. Coffee and tea are inhibitors of Iron and Zinc.


  • Essential for normal functioning of skin,  eyes and gonads.
  • Clinical features of Vit- A deficiency-Asteatosis and phrynoderma.
  • Phrynoderma(toad skin) can be treated by B-complex, VIT-A, VIT-E and essential fatty acids(ex:-safflower oil)· 
  • Dietary sources -Butter, ghee, whole milk, curd, fish-liver oil and all carotene-rich foods(carrots, cabbage, tomato,  mango etc).
  • Excess intake of vit-A causes hypervitaminosis A (toxicity).


  • D2 (ergocalciferol & D3 cholecalciferol)· 
  • Vit- D helps in absorption of calcium and phosphorous from the digestive tract.
  • Sources: 
  1. Fortified foods,    
  2. Cereals,         
  3. Dairy products,     
  4. Fish liver oil.     
  • Vit D3  is a pro-hormone.
  • Adequate Vit-D be obtained by exposure to morning sunlight [200-400IU].


  • Vit- E is the most important anti-oxidant.
  • The Vit- E requirement is linked with essential fatty acids intake.
  • Nuts, wheat germ oil, whole cereals barley and rice bran oil.


  • Concerned about the skin it causes burning sensation of pins and needles, glove & stockings type of anaesthesia.
  • Common food sources are Un milled cereals, nuts, liver, meat, eggs etc. yeast is rich in B1.


  • Deficiency is seen as pallor and maceration of mucosa at angles of mouth dryness of skin,(Angular cheilitis).
  • Milk and milk products, eggs, liver, green leafy vegetables are fair sources.

Vitamin-B3: (Niacin)

  • Deficiency causes a skin disease called pellagra. Along with B3, decreased B2, B6, and decreased protein intake causes pellagra(rough skin).
  • Occurs in middle age individuals, patches of redness and dry skin is seen around the neck, dorsum of hands, elbows, knees and dorsum of legs commonly seen in alcoholics.

Vitamin-B12: (Cyanocobalamin)

  • A primary deficiency occurs due to inadequate diet in vegetarians·   
  • B-12 deficiency causes hyperpigmentation (darkness) on the dorsal aspect of hands particularly knuckles.
  • Folic acid and B12 are used to prevent the spread of vitiligo.


  •  Vitamin essential for hair and nails.