What is Diabetes Mellitus (DM)?
Diabetes Mellitus is a Metabolic Disorder in which a person experience. Hyperglycemia means consistently abnormal High Blood Sugar level. Fasting blood glucose level may more than 7.0 (mmol/L). There are three types of DM, Type 1, Type 2, Gestational DM.
- Genetics(Poor family history) ·
- Poor diet control·
- Poor lifestyle – Tobacco, Alcohol ·
- Physical inactivity·
- Poor medical treatment (Poor compliance/access)·
- Culture and socioeconomic group·
- Women who had diabetes during pregnancy or have had a baby weighing more than 9lbs·
- People who have high blood pressure or high cholesterol·
- Age more than 45 years
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF HYPERGLYCEMIA:
- Slow healing of wounds·
- Blurred vision·
- Altered consciousness·
- Brain damage
- Normal blood vessels have an inner lining called the endothelium. Blood is kept flowing smoothly by producing local nitric oxide (NO). NO relaxes smooth muscle wall. Insulin stimulates NO production. High sugar level, fatty acid and triglycerides lead to stickier walls, trapping floating particles. Platelets and clotting factors are affected by high BS.
- Sugar (glucose) is an important source of energy. What is eaten is absorbed into the blood. Insulin is produced by the pancreas when blood sugar is high. Insulin keeps blood sugar levels within the normal range for health. Islets of Langerhans are found within the pancreas. These islets contain Beta-cells (produce insulin). Insulin allows glucose to be absorbed into muscle/tissues. Lower glucose levels mean lesser insulin released.
- Pharmacological intervention
- OHA (Oral hypoglycaemic agents)
- Lifestyle modification:-1. Exercising regularly 2.Diet control
Importance of Exercises in DM patients: ·
Insulin sensitivity is increased, ultimately it helps to decrease the resistance to insulin production. The patients who has abnormally high blood glucose levels, High HBA1C.. with the help of exercises can reduce HBA1Cand also can maintain reduced blood sugar levels for almost 24 hours after the exercises.
As we all know sugar is the main source of energy with the help of exercises one can help his body to get a more usable form of sugar in the bloodstream.
EXERCISE AND T2DM: HOW?
During exercises muscles contract which helps to increase uptake of blood glucose. In early exercises, glycogen get used as fuel. As Glycogen depletes, muscles increase their uptake of BG & start using circulation blood glucose + free fatty acids. After the exercises like Resistance training or Aerobic exercises contraction mediated pathways persisting for several hours and muscular blood, glucose uptake remains elevated for several hours.
Therefore exercise can reduce blood pressure and improves blood glucose levels.
Results of Exercises are completely dependent on Type of Exercises, Intensity, and Accurate Dosages, performed under the guidance of qualified personal training experts.
Resistance training helps to reduce fasting blood glucose levels for at least 24 hours post exercises. ·
In Aerobic exercises, exercises induced Hypoglycemia chances are very minimal. ·
Combination of Aerobic and Resistance Training gives far better results in reducing Blood Glucose levels and Blood Pressure than using it individually. ·
As we always say PREVENTION is always better than cure….It is always easy to get good effects of exercises in a healthy individuals than the person suffering from Non-Communicable Diseases like DM, HTN, Obesity, Etc.