-   Pigmentation  is common reversible skin condition in which skin becomes different colour than normal skin colour.

Pigmentation is two types

1. Hypopigmentation

2. Hyperpigmentation

1. Hypopigmentation

- In hypopigmentation there is a light colour patch of the skin than the ordinary normal skin. There are different causes of hypopigmentation which we should diagnosed and treated.

- Eg. Vitiligo, leprosy, leishmanisis, p.alba, p.versicolor, etc.


- It is a common condition and each person there have some point of  hyperpigmentation in there body.

 It is a reversible condition in which there is a patch with darker skin than normal skin.

There are different causes of hyperpigmentation:-

1. Melasma:

 It is also called as cholasma in which there is brown to black hyperpigmentation commonly present on cheeck, nose and sometime mandible.

There are a different causes of melasma:


2. stress 

3. contraceptive pill

4.Sun exposure

5. Genetic pre-disposition

 6. drug induced  

2. Freckles, lentiginosis : 

It also called as age spot.It is small brown colour spot present mainly over face and hands. It aggrevates after sun exposure. Hereditary  disorders freckles present all over body, with systemic involvements.

3.Post inflammatory hyperpigmentation:

It is very common reversible skin condition in which the disease with dark colour patch after the inflammation.

Eg. Chickenpox, Acne, trauma, etc.It takes long time to fade the pigmentation

4.Nevus, Birthmark:

 It is black colour patch with or without hair which is present since birth or in adult hood.Sometimes it grow with age.