Articles on language

The Profession of Speech Language Pathology

Dr. Prasanna Hegde, Speech Therapist
Traditionally known to be a profession for teaching children here are some details about The Profession of Speech Language Pathology. Speech Language Pathology, sometimes referred to as Speech Therapy, is a allied health care profession which exclusively deals with rehabilitation of persons with Swallowing, Communication, Cognition, Language, Speech, Voice, Articulation, reading, and other skills. In other skills such as sensory impairment, writing SLP has an important role to play. A Speech Language Pathologist (SLP) is a allied health care professional who practices, promotes and advocates the philosophy of Speech Language Pathology. A SLP is a specialist in the areas of personal, educational, occupational, and social context. These may include: Developing Communication skills through modes such as auditory-verbal, visual-gestural, Orthography or any of the available and suiting combinations.Developing Cognitive skills for effective use of knowledge and Language in cognitive and executive functions of activities of daily living. Developing Language skills for appropriate and efficient use of concepts and communication through verbal or orthogrpahic modality. Developing Speech skills for appropriate and efficient use of verbal Language to be heard, understood, and acted upon by the communicating partner.Developing Voice skills for appropriate and effective use of vocal structures to communicate through spoken verbal language. Developing Articulation skills for appreciate and effective use of oral structures for pronunciation of speech sounds for communication.Developing Reading and Writing skills for appropriate and effective use of knowledge of orthographic language knowledge in communication, education and expressing ideas. Developing Readiness to learning for exploring the world around by attaining, retaining and executive concepts and skills in activities of daily living.These domains may be affected in the medical conditions in the domain of Child development disorders, Progressive and Non-progressive Neurological Disorders, Head and Neck Cancer, aging, and other specific conditions such as voice disorders, stammering.

Role of a Speech Language Pathologist in Early Intervention!

Mrs. Namrata Pai, Speech Therapist
What is Early Intervention?Early intervention is a system of coordinated services that promotes the child's age-appropriate growth and development and supports families of children who have developmental delays or disabilities during the critical early years (aged birth to six years).Who is Qualified to do Early Intervention?An early childhood intervention team generally consists of teachers with early childhood education training, special education specialists, speech and language pathologists (SLP), Physical therapists (physiotherapists), occupational therapists, and other support staff, such as music therapists, teacher aides/assistants, and counselors. Since there are so many professionals involved in a team, it is important to check the quality and background of the team members involved.How different is Early Intervention from Speech Language Therapy/Pathology?Speech language pathologists/Therapists (SLP/T) are a part of the early intervention team and SLP looks in to the communication development of the child. SLPs, as autonomous professionals, assume various roles in addressing the concerns and priorities of families and their infants or toddlers, and should be included on any early intervention team for children who are at risk for or have communication, language, speech, emergent literacy, or feeding/swallowing impairments.Can Speech Therapy and Early Intervention be done at the same time? Will it confuse the child?As previously said a SLP is a core member of the early intervention team so of course it can be and it is also mandatory to avail the help of a SLP! Each professional of the early intervention team works on his/her specialty area and all the team members should be in sync with each other in terms of the goals and the action plan. It will only aid the child’s holistic growth.At what Age can I start Speech Therapy for my Child?Effective communication is fundamental to all aspects of human functioning, particularly learning and social interaction. The development of communication skills begins at birth. So families with infants and toddlers (birth–36 months) and in early childhood (3 years to 5 years of age) are eligible to start speech therapy as part of their early intervention program.

Is Your Language Effectively Expressing You..??

Ms. Sneha Bhat, Psychologist
How many times have you spoken dearly to your pet and felt absolutely understood. Wait, isn’t your pet someone who speaks a language which you might not even dream to understand in your lifetime! Again how many times have you conversed with a friend, parent or a partner and felt not understood? Plenty of times I suppose. Now, we are talking about a person who speaks the very own language as yours. Why is it that the language that is bringing us together and connecting us, falls short when it comes to creating perfect understanding?Our Language: Representation of our Unique Experiencing & Meaning SystemImagine that you and few of your friends are out in the city; you are very hungry and manage to find a restaurant which is offering only buffet. There are several items on the buffet for you to grab and you happily choose from the options. Now stand back and think. Is there a guarantee that the items on the buffet are exactly what you wanted to eat..?? Need not be, right.  Again once you choose an item, say ‘Malai Kofta’, and taste it. The way you experience and explain the item might be totally different from the way your friends do, though you are experiencing and explaining the same dish. Similarly, When you were born, you were eager to connect and socialize hence you embraced the language you came across with its limited communication options. Now, you are very unique in your experiencing of the world and you can only use certain words you are familiar with, within your cultural exposure to communicate your experiencing. You manage to communicate as effectively as possible. However what is forgotten here is the fact that the other person to whom communication is directed is unique as well with his own experiencing, exposure and choice of words. He might understand it in his own way. It is just little better than two deaf men trying to make sense of vivid conversation.Expectations from Everyone else to be Meaning the same with their WordsNow think about the last real conversation you had with your mother or your partner. You tend to keep it as short as possible and expect her/him to know what you meant. You get irritated when the other person misreads you. What exactly is happening here? First of all the language is the limited exposure of our experiencing and on top we are not even ensuring that the message has gone to other person with the meaning we wanted to communicate. We start thinking that Jeez, this person rarely understands me, how am I supposed to stand him/her and even like him/her..? This would be another story with friends as with friends we usually are conversing about topics which are not of personal depth or emotionally charged. Again we also could be befriending those who share our meaning system to great extent..!Non-Verbals: The Universal Language with mostly shared Meaning SystemsNow, how do we resolve his discrepancy? We would need to keep in mind that though language seems universal it is not, it is very unique and specific to the person however there is another huge part of our communication system, namely 93% which is universal - The non- verbal system. We should learn to pay more attention to non-verbal communication to understand ourselves and others better. When you tune into the non-verbals, the meanings become clearer.Using Language in Right Way to make Communication Effective!Language is an effort to fill all the water in the ocean in a gigantic tank. The ocean is ocean how much ever big the tank is. On top we all carry our own versions of the tank with different size and shape. Language no doubt plays a huge role in connecting us and advancing the mankind however we should never forget that it is a small portion of effective communication and also a limiting factor. In all our versions of language meanings go far beyond the words…Now tell me did I manage to make sense in this 7%....I can only be optimistic here.. ;)

Speech More Than Speech?

Mrs. Namrata Pai, Speech Therapist
Parents often come to a speech therapist expecting the Speech language Therapist (SLT) to work on speech, but of course just like how jellyfishes aren't really fishes and peanuts aren't nuts, a pediatric SLT does not work on "only" speech. They look at COMMUNICATION. Speech is the combination of sounds to make a string of words. But before you can start speaking, a lot of factors need to come together. It needs two people, a person to initiate, a person to respond, looking at each other, being physically at a distance that you can have a conversation and last but not the least, a reason to communicate and finally the words… Phew!!!In fact, conversations are 65% of these skills and only 35% words/speech. Just like a great musical performance needs the artist to be ready with his instrument, a concert hall, a captivating and practiced musical piece and an audience, a pediatric speech therapist needs to ensure that the child has all the pre-requisite skills for speech.A set of good listening skills and play skills go a long way in building the steps to saying words and using speech. What we do with children in speech language therapy sessions might look like we are having fun with the child by just playing but in reality, we are building the bond and relation with the child which is like telling the child that we are equals in this activity and I respect you! That’s when the child trusts us and at the same time, we can evaluate the important pre-requisites for speech.Parents often complain that we as therapists are not strict with the child. The reality being that, we always include the child’s interests and let the child lead the interaction by going his way wherever possible so that communication and learning is happening without the child realizing it. Being strict is like having a demanding boss in office! Would you like to be with him/her or do things for that person for long? You would be frustrated, angry and sometimes rebellious as well!!! Speech Therapy is “more” than Speech and Play is “Serious” work...Communication, well that's the "overlooked" secret sauce in the recipe!

To Prevent Speech & Language Developmental Delay in Normal Children

Mr. Pradeep V R, Audiologist
Like most learning, speech is primarily learned by imitation of mother or care taker.1. Sing to your child. Words are easier to learn if sung.2. Make like a speaker and just keep talking. Always encourage whatever baby utters.3. Spend at least 30 minutes to one hour with your child. Keep talking, playing and do creative stuff together. 4. Expose your child to more playmates than playthings. Interaction with children of the same age would stimulate his speech.5. Consider your child’s interest. “Ma, ball,” your child might say. Instead of just an indifferent “yes,” the mother can say, “Yes, that’s a big, blue ball that bounces.”6. Walk around the neighborhood and interact with neighbors with your child. Expand your child’s experience. 7. Add to his vocabulary. Point out objects to him and say, “See that—that’s a building. Buildings are tall structures that can serve as houses or offices.” 8. Act as interpreter for a stranger or a friend. “If the child cannot comprehend another person’s dialogue, make it clearer for the child. Help your child in such social situations.”9. Do not laugh at or criticize mispronunciation.“If he mispronounced or misused a word, don’t criticize him. Doing so might just frustrate him. Paying attention is also a form of encouragement. If nobody listens to the child, he may choose to just keep quiet,”10. Let him watch less TV programs and interact more with humans.

Why Gestures? What’s the Big Deal!

Mrs. Namrata Pai, Speech Therapist
I remember that my son spoke late! He was 1.6 years but still not using many words. My SLP sensors were on and I knew that the next critical thing I needed to look at were his GESTURES. How many and how often would he use them?Though his meaningful words were only 10-15, he had a whole dictionary of gestures to denote people, songs, activities, animals, and vehicles… He could narrate his whole day’s happenings to me when I came back from clinic with a mix of gestures, some true words and a whole lot of gibberish language thrown in. So gestures were the bridge between his understanding of language and the use of words to express his thoughts.A lot of research has been going on in the field of gesture development and based on the First words project, (Dr.Amy Wetherby, Florida State University) here are a list of gestures quoted from the project. Your child should be using the following:  9 months: Giving objects in the parents hand, shaking head for “No”10 months: Reach for objects, raise arms to be carried11 months: Show objects to others, wave hands12 months: Open hand point to divert the attention of others to things of interest13 months: Clap, Flying kiss14 months: Index finger point and gesture for ‘sh’ (quiet)15 months: Head nod, hand gesture meaning ‘wait’16 months: Hi five, I don’t know (shoulder shrug) etc.The list above is an example of gestures that a child will typically learn and is not restricted to only the ones listed. It’s important that the child has 16 gestures by the age of 16 months because it is a predictor of the child’s ability to interact with the adult socially and also learn language from them. If they are not using these gestures then the child is at risk for language delay due to autism/ other developmental delays. The Earlier the better is cliché but when it comes to your child’s communication how early is early? At 16 months it definitely is! Why wait? In doubt consult a Speech Language Pathologist and remember GESTURES are a big deal!!!

Stammering/stuttering and Its Management

SLP Sanjay Kumar, Audiologist
Introduction: Stammering also known as stuttering is the fluency disorder of speech and is characterized by disruptions in the production of speech sounds. For examples:K- K- K- Kiran is may friend" (Part-word repetition). "RRRR am is may brother "(sound prolongation).I'll meet you - um um you know like - around six o'clock." (A series of interjections: The person expects to have difficulty smoothly joining the word "you" with the word "around." In response to the anticipated difficulty, he produces several interjections until he is able to say the word "around" smoothly.)There may be some associated behavior, apart from non fluent speech, like eye blinking, jaw pressing, hand movement, leg movement and poor eye contacts.How is stammering diagnosed?Diagnosing stuttering requires the skills of a certified speech-language pathologist (SLP). Some time patient reach to physician also. In such case most of the physician refer to Speech Language Pathologist for detail assessment and management. Most of the time parents  confused between  normal non fluency and stammering. Here SLPs evaluation will help to remove such confusion.Factors that are noted by many specialists include the following:a family history of stutteringstuttering that has continued for 6 months or longerpresence of other speech or language disordersstrong fears or concerns about stuttering on the part of the child or the familyWhat are  the main  causes  of stammering ?When we speak there are hundred of muscles of our body like breathing muscles, laryngeal muscles, muscles of lips , tongue, palate and jaw  works in coordinated way. If coordination among these muscles due to any reason goes fluency of speech will be affected. Means those who stammer will having problem in coordinating speech production muscles with brain.What treatments are available for stammering?Speech Language Pathologists teach people who stutter to control and/or monitor the rate at which they speak. In addition, people may learn to start saying words in a slightly slower and less physically tense manner. They may also learn to control or monitor their breathing. When learning to control speech rate, people often begin by practicing smooth, fluent speech at rates that are much slower than typical speech, using short phrases and sentences. Over time, people learn to produce smooth speech at faster rates, in longer sentences, and in more challenging situations until speech sounds both fluent and natural. "Follow-up" or "maintenance" sessions are often necessary after completion of formal intervention to prevent relapse.Is there any medicine or surgery will help in stammering management?The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved any drug for the treatment of stuttering. However, some drugs that are approved to treat other health problems such as epilepsy, anxiety, or depression have been used to treat stuttering. These drugs often have side effects that make them difficult to use over a long period of time. In a recent study funded by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD),researchers concluded that drug therapy has been largely ineffective in controlling stuttering.Is there 100% Cure for Stammering?There is no 100% cure for stammering, although few healthcare quacks  are making such false claim. Speech therapy result may vary with the type of problem, severity of problem and age of the person. There are some examples of relapse also after speech therapy. A Significant change has been seen among about 80% population after speech therapy.How do I know who are speech language pathologist /speech therapist in India? These are the professionals trained for the assessment and treatment of all kinds of communication disorders. They should have the following qualification:B.Sc. (Hons )Speech and Hearing/B.Sc. Speech and Hearing/Bachelor in Audiology and speech language Pathology(BASLP)M.Sc. Speech Language Pathology/M.Sc. Speech and Hearing/ MASLPCertified by Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI)

Unclear Speech Is Curable in All Age Groups

Dr. Chander Mohan Mittal, Cardiologist
Why should you seek speech therapy if you notice difficulties with articulation (pronunciation and talking)?· To improve a child’s ability to produce clearer speech.· To improve a child’s ability to be understood by others.· To improve a child’s ability to engage positively with other children and adults.· To facilitate a child’s interactions with familiar (e.g. family members, peers) and unfamiliar individuals.· To help reduce frustration in a child who struggles with getting their message across.· To improve spelling/writing.Left treated,difficulties with articulation (pronunciation and talking) can lead to:· Difficulties forming friendships and engaging in positive social interactions with peers.· Difficulties completing higher level education tasks.· Difficulties being understood during interactions such as job interviews or when meeting new people.· Difficulties developing literacy skills such as reading and writing.Most children make some mistakes as they learn to say new words. A speech sound disorder occurs when mistakes continue past a certain age. Every sound has a different range of ages when the child should make the sound correctly. Speech sound disorders include problems with articulation (making sounds) and phonological processes (sound patterns).Some adults continue to have problems from childhood, while others may develop speech problems after a stroke or head injury. Some signs of an articulation disorder:An articulation disorder as stated before involves problems with making/ producing sounds. Sounds can be substituted, left off, added or changed. These errors may make it hard for people to understand them.Young children often make speech errors. For instance, many young children sound like they are making a "w" sound for an"r" sound (e.g., "wabbit" for "rabbit") or may leave sounds out of words, such as "nana" for "banana." The child may have an articulation disorder if these errors continue past the expected age.Not all sound substitutions and omissions are speech errors.Instead, they may be related to a feature of a dialect or accent. Consult a speech-language pathologist (SLP). The SLP will do formal and informal assessment to record sound errors. Hearing, language and an oral mechanism examination will also be done. The SLP may recommend speech treatment if the sound is not appropriate for the child's age or if it is not a feature of a dialect or accent or not related to hearing disorder. Treatments are very effective if you consult a qualified and an experienced SLP.At what change SLP should be consulted?You can consult a SLP at any age. If you have any concern regarding your child’s speech development, we recommend that you must contact a speech language pathologist. 

Who Is A Speech Language Pathologist?

Dr. Prasanna Hegde, Speech Therapist
Speech Language Pathologist is an Allied Health Professional who deals with rehabilitation of the following skills Swallowing - eating liquids and solids through mouth without the help of Tube.  Communication - understanding and expression of needs and information through any way.Cognition - use of attention, concentration, perception, memory, problem solving, organization for every day functioning. Language - Use of speaking and understanding speech for communication. Reading - Understanding the written text for communication, education, and occupation Writing - Using text for communication, education and occupationSpeech - Using speaking for communication of everyday needs Voice - Right tone, right volume and pleasant quality of voice while speaking Fluency - Smooth flow while speaking and no stammeringArticulation - Pronunciation of speech sounds for communicationResonance - Speaking in nose for only m as in Mad, n as in nine and ng as in MangoProsody -  Speaking with correct ups and downs in speech or having lively speechThese may be affected in following conditions: Neurological Conditions: Stroke, Traumatic Brain Injury, Parkinson's Disease, Other progressive and non progressive neurological conditions Head and Neck Cancer: cancer of tongue, jaw, mouth, voice box or any othersDevelopmental Disorders: Global developmental delay, cerebral palsy, autism, ADHD, Sensory deficits like hearing impairment, Mental Retardation, Learning Disability, etcAnatomical deviance: Tongue tie, Cleft lip and palate, post surgical rehabilitation And other syndromes and disorders which may affect voice, articulation, speech, language, cognition and communication.  A Speech Language Pathologist works in Acute Care Hospitals, Outpatient, Schools, Rehabilitation clinics and Community centers. Rehabilitation is focused on improving personal, educational, occupational and social quality of life (QOL). 

Use Simple Language. for Example,

Dr. Pooja
An article (abbreviated art) is a word (or prefix or suffix) that is used with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun. Articles specify grammaticaldefiniteness of the noun, in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope. The articles in the English language are the and a/an, and (in certain contexts) some.'An' and 'a' are modern forms of the Old English 'an', which in Anglian dialects was the number 'one' (compare 'on', in Saxon dialects) and survived into Modern Scots as the number 'owan'. Both 'on' (respelled 'one' by the Normans) and 'an' survived into Modern English, with 'one' used as the number and 'an' ('a', before nouns that begin with a consonant sound) as an indefinite article.In many languages, articles are a special part of speech, which cannot easily be combined with other parts of speech. In English, articles are frequently considered a part of a broader speech category called determiners, which combines articles and demonstratives (such as 'this' and 'that').In languages that employ articles, every common noun, with some exceptions, is expressed with a certain definiteness (e.g., definite or indefinite), just as many languages express every noun with a certain grammatical number (e.g., singular or plural). Every noun must be accompanied by the article, if any, corresponding to its definiteness, and the lack of an article (considered a zero article) itself specifies a certain definiteness. This is in contrast to other adjectives and determiners, which are typically optional. This obligatory nature of articles makes them among the most common words in many languages—in English, for example, the most frequent word is the.[1]Articles are usually characterized as either definite or indefinite.[2] A few languages with well-developed systems of articles may distinguish additional subtypes. Within each type, languages may have various forms of each article, according to grammatical attributes such as gender, number, or case, or according to adjacent sounds.Contents  [hide] 1Definite article2Indefinite article3Partitive article4Negative article5Zero article6Variation among languages7Evolution7.1Definite articles7.2Indefinite articles8See also9References10External links