The formation of crystals and calculi due to mineral deposits in urine are known as urinary calculi, when formed in kidney are known as kidney stones but can form any where in the urinary tract and they are named depending on the site where they are formed. Cystine stones are formed from cystine, an amino acid that is found in protein. Less then 1% of kidney stones are made from cystine.

 CAUSES: • Family history of kidney stones. • Hot climate and dehydration. • Working in hot environment. • Decreased intake of water. • Deficiency of vitamin B6 and magnesium. • Sedentary life style. • Hereditary disease - renal tubular acidosis develop kidney stones. • Cystic kidney disease. • Hormonal disorder. • Drugs used to treat HIV. • Cystine stones: usually develop in children. • Hereditary disease – cystinuria (high homocystine level) 

 SIGN AND SYMPTOMS: • When kidney stones are small they are passed unnoticed with the urine. • Large stones cannot easily pass through urinary tract and are painful. • Sudden onset of pains. • Sharp, cramping pains in the back and side in the area of kidney or lower abdomen. • Pain in the abdomen radiating down to the groin. • Painful urination. Restlessness • Hard Abdomen • Increased pulse • Nausea & Vomiting. • Profuse sweating. • In males – excruciating pains in the testicles as the stones passes out. • Red urine • Painful urination • Pus in urine • In case of an infection along with the above mentioned symptoms • there may be • Fever with Chills. • Frequent urge to pass urine.

 DIETARY MANAGEMENT: Kidney stones have tendency to reoccur, it can be prevented by some dietary changes. Depending upon the type of stones you can make necessary changes in your diet and prevent stone formation. • Fluid intake: – Drink lots of water, fruit juice, vegetable juice and other drinks. At least 50% total fluid intake should be water. – Drink about 3-5 liters of water as water dilutes urine and there by hinders the stone formation. – Drink enough to ensure the passage of 2000 ml / 70 oz of urine per day. – Never let yourself to become dehydrated. Drink more water if you are doing strenuous work or are working in hot humid climate. – You can drink barley water and coconut water daily, it helps in removing stones. . Take care not to over indulge. One unit is about 285 ml beer. • Drink lots of orange juice or other citrus fruit juices like – grapefruit, cranberry and grape juice. Citrus fruits especially orange juice is rich in potassium and citrate, potassium citrate is commonly used to prevent kidney stones. • Reduce sodium intake. High sodium intake increases the risk of kidney stone by increasing urinary saturation of calcium phosphate and monosodium rate and decreases the inhibitory activity against calcium oxalate crystallization. • Increase intake of fiber – bran, whole grains, oat, green leafy vegetables, peas, beans, potatoes, raw vegetables, salads, dried fruits and fresh fruits. • Consume good amount of B-complex vitamin daily, especially pyridoxine (Vitamin B-6) and B-1 (thiamine) as their deficiency is associated with formation of stones. • Reduce intake of sugar as it is associated with kidney stones. • If possible stick to vegetarian diet. Studies have shown that plant sources of oxalates and calcium are not the cause for stone formation. Diet high in animal protein affects certain minerals in the urine which aids in the formation of kidney stones. • Large quantities of water should be consumed to dilute the concentration of cystine in urine, which is difficult. Drink at least a gallon of water per day and third of it should be drunk during the night. • Consume buffered vitamin C, in the form of ascorbate. • Consume diet low in mithionine: – Foods high in methionine: broccoli, mushroom, cauliflower, potatoes, spinach, corn, avocado, nuts – peanuts, pistachio, macadamia nuts; tofu, green beans, beans sprouts, dried beans – kidney beans, black beans, tempeh, milk and eggs. • High-homocysteine levels increase the risk of heart disease, avoid meat and saturated fats.

CONSULT YOUR PHYSICIAN: • If you have continuous pain with the above mentioned symptoms contact your physician for proper diagnosis and treatment. • Do not make changes in diet before medical evaluation of the stone / urine. • If you notice blood or pus in urine see you physician immediately. • If you have fever, frequent desire to urinate, continuous pain it is suggestive of infection see your physician immediately. • Do not self medicate or take any supplements without consulting your physician. • If you pass stone in urine take it for medical evaluation / chemical analysis of its content.

Homeopathic medicine --Berba vul Q BD 

Dr Mrs Neeraj Gupta  

Gupta Computerised Homeopathic Clinic