Before deciding what form of dietary intervention to make, a full evaluation of the past and present circumstances of the person with diabetes is necessary. Such an evaluation should take account of the following issues:

  • The person’s previous experience of diabetes:-Any prior diabetes education -Their knowledge and self-care skills
  • Their current situation:-The prevailing clinical and psychological status-Self-management practices (nutrition and treatment plans)
  • Any relevant objectives associated with the care of their diabetes:-Clinical goals (target blood glucose and lipids) -Nutrition goals
  • Lifestyle factors:- Levels of physical activity

Most foods contain a combination of essential nutrients that can broadly be classified into two types: 

1. Macro-nutrients – known as such because the body needs more of these – include proteins, carbohydrates and fats. 

These nutrients are 

  • Oxidized in the body to provide energy
  • Needed for reproduction 
  • Essential for cell repair and growth

2. Micro-nutrients – required in smaller amounts – include vitamins and minerals. Micronutrients are needed for proper utilization of macronutrients and enable the body to produce enzymes, hormones and other substances essential for proper growth and development.

Adequate fluid and fiber are also essential to correct body function .