Articles on eye surgery

How Do I Behave When I Am Undergoing Cataract Surgery?

Dr. Manoj Rai Mehta, Ophthalmologist
Cataract Surgery nowadays is usually performed under 'topical anaesthesia' that involves instillation of drops of the anaesthetic agent on the eye surface.  The patient retains the power to close the lids and move the eyeball during surgery, feel no pain but touch and pressure sensations are unaffected.  A peribulbar block anaesthesia may be used at times on surgeon's discretion that involves an injection of anaesthetic agent around the eyeball with a short needle.  This takes away lid and eye movements to a large extent but some control may remain with the patient.     Operating Surgeon expects the patient to follow the instructions for a smooth surgery.  It is important to have a surgical counselling session with the doctor to understand the procedure and expected sounds/conversation during the operative procedure.  The sequence of events should be understood and played in your mind while you move through the surgical suite.You should be wearing loose, comfortable hospital pyjama suit.  Do not hesitate to change it if it is tight around your neck.  Some hospitals have the policy to allow you to wear your own loose clothes and give you a hospital gown over them.  Please ensure you are not wearing tight fitting clothes and your neck is free.  Ladies to tie their hair in a ponytail with a band or a soft bun with no clips or claspsSit quietly in the pre-operative area and use the washrooms before going to the OR.  You may take sips of water if your mouth feels dry but do not hydrate yourself too much.You may be given a cap and eye marked for surgery.  The antiseptic solution will be painted around the eye.  Let the solution dry and do not touch your eye. OR assistant will help you lie down on the OT table with a rubber ring under the head to prevent rolling from side to side. You should be comfortable and be able to breathe rhythmically while lying down.  Ask for a head raise if neck extension is hurting you and get the ring adjusted to your comfort and if it is hard for you to ask for a softer ring.When you are comfortable allow the staff to put monitoring devices which could be a pulse oxygen meter alone or additional cardiac electrodes.  Breath rhythmically and try to relax.Sterile Drapes will be placed around your head and an adhesive eye drape on the eye to be operated upon.  Please maintain your head in a position as required and adjusted by the surgeon.  Do not move your head or lower your chin.  The surgeon works under a microscope and any movement shifts the focus and obstructs in smooth surgery.There will be several sounds in the OR that you should ignore-beep of monitors, hum of air circulation unit, trolley wheels, the doctor would be giving instructions to staff and asking for instruments etc.  Try to keep your attention focused towards surgery only.Coughing and snorting during surgery can create complications, always ask the surgeon to stop the surgery if you feel like doing so.  Do not try to suppress a cough or sneeze by holding breath.  Do not bear down or move.Follow instructions of a surgeon and do not start a conversation. Answer only when a question is directed towards you.  The surgeon may ask you to look in a particular direction.  You have to follow the command by moving your eyes and not head unless the specific instruction is made. The first touch of the instrument will increase your confidence.  Do not wince, squeeze your lids or make a jerky movement if you feel some pain.  Inform the doctor, who will reinforce anaesthesia.Cataract Surgery machines also produce different types of sounds during different phases of surgery and also have synthesised verbal outputs.  Do not get distracted by the same.You will see movements in front of the eye during surgery and also perceive vibrations.  Light intensity will increase towards the end of surgery.  A calm patient who is having a regular rhythmic breathing and a regular normal pulse rate makes a surgeon's job easy.(In case of specific problems additional monitoring and specialised anaesthetic cover may be required which the operating surgeon will discuss before hand).               

Steps After Cataract Surgery for Optimum Outcome

Dr. Vaibhev Mittal, Ophthalmologist
Cataract is the most commonly performed eye surgery. With modern advanced phacoemulsification techniques and better anesthetic drugs, there is a shift in paradigm from large incision suture based surgeries (Extra capsular cataract extraction) to minimal incision sutureless surgeries. Now cataract can be operated even under topical anesthesia (No injection required to anesthetize the eye) which speedens the recovery and minimizes the need for post operative bandage.What to expect on first Post operative day?With new techniques involving minimal intervention, sometimes, it becomes difficult to differentiate operated eye from normal eye. In most patients eye is usually white with clear vision. But it is not unusual to see red eye on first day which could be damage to small blood vessels present in conjunctiva. This redness usually resolves over 2-3 weeks without any visual disturbance.Sometimes, the vision may be blurred on first day which could be due to mild corneal swelling which resolves over 1 week. It takes nearly 4 weeks for eye to heal completely after cataract surgeryPrecautions to be taken in first post operative week for best results after surgeryThough cataract surgery is a quick and painless day care procedure but still few precautions need to be taken for optimal resultsMost devastating complication after cataract surgery is infection. Usually doctors take preventive measures both pre and  intra operatively but still antibiotic eyedrops should be used as prescribed by doctor during post operative period to reduce the risk of infection. Cataract surgery is also associated with minimal inflammation in eye. For that doctors prescribe steroids along with NSAID eyedrops.Other precautions that need to be exercised are:Avoid rubbing eyes as it may cause wound leak and increases risk of infectionCover your eyes by dark glasses to prevent exposure to dust and irritantsAvoid swimming and exposure to water for atleast 10 days after surgeryAvoid lifting heavy weight or strenuous exerciseAvoid bending  or gym for initial 2 weeksKeep using medicines as advised by doctorClean eyes with cotton dipped in hot waterThese are simple precautions that should be exercised for optimal visual outcome

Common Eye Investigations Explained!

Dr. Quresh Maskati, Ophthalmologist
Pachymetry: Measurement of the thickness of the cornea – a test done to determine if your cornea is suitable for LASIK or collagen cross linkage procedure in patients with keratoconus or conical corneaKeratometry: Measurement of corneal curvature, usually done in the centre of the cornea. This measurement is handy to add to other measurements to calculate amount of LASIK laser required to bring your spectacle number to zero; also one of the measurements required to calculate the Intra-ocular lens power suitable for your eye in case you have a cataract.AS-OCT: Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography. Something like a CT scan of the front portion of the eye. Comes in handy for a variety of diseases of the cornea and anterior segmentUBM – Ultra Biomicroscopy: This is an ophthalmic ultrasound using a special probe, to view in detail structures in the anterior segment, up to and including the crystalline lens of the eye and an inserted IOL. Also useful to examine the angle of the eye (UBM Gonioscopy) to find out if it is narrow, closed or open. This may influence decision making about glaucoma surgery in some cases.B-scan: An ultrasound test to examine structures in the back of the eye, especially if the view of the back of the eye is hampered due to opacities in the normally clear media, such as a cataract or haemorrhage in the posterior compartment(vitreous haemorrhage), so that ophthalmoscopy examination is not possible. Also useful in lesions of the extraocular muscles and any space occupying lesions in the orbit, outside the eye.A-scan: Also called A scan biometry. In this the examiner determines the front to back measurement of the eye using ultrasound. He then feeds in the keratometry reading obtained from the keratometer. An inbuilt computer in the A- scan biometry machine, using one of several complex formulae, then calculate the power of the intra-ocular lens implant required for your eyeOCT: Exactly like the AS-OCT talked about earlier; it gives you colour coded pictures of the back of the eye including individual layers of the retina. Therefore , if there is bleeding into the back of the eye or fluid collection in the retina, the OCT can tell you in which layer of the retina or whether it is just in front of or just behind the retina. It can also measure retinal thickness .This is helpful in planning treatment  in conditions like diabetic macular oedema or monitoring efficacy of intravitreal injections given for wet age related macular degeneration.Corneal Topography: This gives you several ‘maps’ of the cornea; an invaluable tool in assessing suitability of the cornea for LASIK and useful in detection of keratoconus and in fitting of contact lenses. It provides information on the curvature of the cornea at various points of the cornea, the ‘power’ of the cornea etc.Aberrometry: This is often used by the LASIK surgeon in patients unhappy after a successful LASIK – it detects minute flaws called “higher order aberrations” in your eye’s optical system which prevents you from enjoying ‘super’ vision after LASIK. Some LASIK machines which are “wave-front guided” routinely use data from aberrometers to fine tune the LASIK treatment to reduce these aberrations post LASIK surgery.Visual Field Analysis:  Mechanical devices that measured your field of vision were called perimeters. They have been largely replaced by Visual Field Analysers (VFA). These have inbuilt computers for storing and analysing your visual fields. They can compare fields done over a period and analyse whether the patient’s field is worsening or remaining the same. The routine test is a little cumbersome and requires your co-operation, lasting around 30-40 minutes, though for simple screening faster tests are available in the same machine. VFA is ordered in cases of glaucoma both for diagnosis and for judging efficacy of treatment. They are also invaluable in some neurological disorders causing drop in vision like in stroke etc.Fluorescein Fundus Angiography (FFA): In this test a dye, fluorescein Sodium is injected into the vein of your forearm. It takes around 10 seconds for the dye to spread into your retinal vasculature. This can be viewed by the observer using an ophthalmoscope, though more commonly, a digital camera called a fundus camera is used to take multiple photos of the retina shortly after dye injection.Depending on the areas of perfusion (dye seen) or non-perfusion (dye not seen) or leakage of dye from the vessels into the retina, decisions are made in cases of diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration etc. about whether to do laser or give some injections or treat with medications .HRT/GDX : These are fancy names for computer software in which images of the optic disc and retina are analysed. Accurate measurements are made of optic  nerve size, cup/disc ratio, retinal nerve fibre thickness. This is a useful adjunct to diagnose glaucoma and monitor its progression.Electro-retinography (ERG):  This test is used to find out the function of the retina. This comes in useful when the retina appears normal on ophthalmoscopy but patient has poor vision and also when the retina is not clearly seen due to media opacities. If the ERG is poor or absent, the eye surgeon may decide that the visual prognosis is poor and further surgery to clear the media opacities like a corneal transplant for corneal opacities or a cataract extraction for a mature cataract is not warranted.M-ERG or Multifocal ERG. This is the newest version of the ERG. In this a colour map is generated with the area of maximum cone function (macula) showing a steep elevation while the area with no cones (optic nerve ) showing up as flat and blue in colour. In diseases like macular degeneration, the central hill is considerably flattened, making diagnosis a ‘no-brainer’.Visual Evoked Potential (VEP):  In this test, either a very bright light (Flash VEP) or a checker board pattern is shone into the patient’s eye. The time taken for this to be perceived by the visual area of the brain (situated at the back of the head) and the intensity of the signal is recorded by sensitive electrodes placed at the back of the scalp. This measures the integrity of the visual pathway from the eye right up to the brain. In conditions like optic neuritis, where the optic nerve which carries signals from the eye to the brain is inflamed, the VEP will be reduced. On the other hand, a patient who is feigning blindness will have a normal VEP.Can a person who has undergone one or more of these tests donate their eyes?None of these tests is life threatening. However, it is proved that every patient who undergoes any of these tests will die some day, maybe months, years or decades later! If a patient were to die due to natural or accidental causes years after any of these tests were performed, the author does recommend donation of the eyes!

"Oh God! I Have Been Diagnosed with Cataract!"

Dr. Manoj Rai Mehta, Ophthalmologist
When a patient is diagnosed to have cataract the following questions pop up immediately:Is it unusual at this age?Can it be cured with medication of any sort?Is the surgery a must?  What if I do not get operated?How long can the surgery be avoided?  Cataract is the commonest cause of gradual, painless, progressive diminution of vision in middle-aged and old people.  The reaction of a patient varies from utter shock, disbelief to acceptance and discussion of further treatment.Why Me?     While cataract is known to occur at all ages and even congenitally, it is the senile, age-related, a cataract that is the commonest in prevalence.  People get cataract at different ages depending upon familial trends and associated systemic illnesses and exposure to certain light frequencies.  Diabetes (and other metabolic afflictions), steroid intake and exposure to Ultra Violet light cause early cataract formation.  Trauma to the eye also causes cataract formation. Why does vision decrease?The normally transparent crystalline lens of the eye becomes translucent and some areas turn opaque, thus causing scattering of light as well as a blockage.  Location of opaque areas also matters as central changes affect vision much earlier than those in the periphery.  Opaque areas close to the nodal point of the lens will affect vision profoundly even if small in size.Is there a medical cure available?In spite of tall claims no medical treatment has been established scientifically beyond doubt till now. Anecdotal claims do not satisfy scientific hypothesis.  Use of antioxidants may retard the progression of cataract as a general anti ageing effect.  Avoid using eye drops of unknown composition and dubious sources in the name of magical cures!  They may cause more harm than benefit.What is the "Right Time" for surgery?It depends on upon the lifestyle, profession and visual needs of a patient.  It is ordinarily an elective surgery and a patient should discuss all the elements of procedure and care with the surgeon and decide on the timing of surgery.  Surgery is aimed at improving "quality of life".  Glare, difficulty in driving and reading are some of the things that can affect the quality of life of a person and surgery is expected to alleviate them.  A driver, an IT professional, an avid golfer may choose to undergo surgery at an earlier stage than a person who does not drive and read much.Gone are the days when patients used to wait for the cataract to mature! Surgery time is decided after a mutual discussion on outcomes and QOL targets.  Surgery should not be postponed for long in case of advanced cataracts as they turn harder with time and surgery becomes more challenging. There are situations when surgery can not be postponed such as a swollen lens causing a rise in pressure or a leaky lens causing inflammation.Cataract surgery is one of the most gratifying surgical procedures and safest as well.  Do not get scared, discuss the goals of surgery and take a cool decision.   

Myth vs Reality: Cataract Surgery

Dr. Vishal Arora, Ophthalmologist
Cataract surgery is one of the most common surgery being done on the planet. Yet there are numerous misconceptions associated with it this articles deals with three most common myths about cataract surgery.Myth 1: I cannot develop cataract, my father didn’t have it and so shall I …Reality: Cataract is due to natural AGE RELATED clouding of crystalline lens present inside the human eye. As you can’t stop ageing, hence, you can’t stop cataract formation. But on the other hand degree of cataract formation and progression is variable and cannot be predicted.Myth 2: I don’t want surgery, can't it be dissolved naturally ?Reality: Unfortunately all the research that has been done or being done is unable to Stop/ reverse/dissolve cataract formation. The various drops available claiming to dissolve /reverse/stop cataract formation have no scientific basis.Myth 3: I heard that the surgery is painful and it takes lot of time for the vision to come back..Reality: Earlier cataract surgery used Injections around the eye, large cuts, sutures and rigid intra-ocular lenses and took a long time for vision to come back. Modern day cataract surgery involves NO INFECTIONS, LESS THAN 2 MM CUTS, NO SUTURES and FOLDABLE INTRA-OCULAR LENSES, where the patient gets his vision back on DAY 1 post surgery and can resume his/her normal activities.modern day cataract surgery is one of the safest surgeries today. We don’t wait for the cataract to reach maturity i.e. the patient to loose his vision, but operate as soon as the patient feels his vision is decreasing gradually and is affecting routine activities.The future has also arrived which  involves using Femtosecond Lasers to make incision (cuts) in patient’s eye rather than relying on the surgeon to do so. Almost 95% of modern day cataract surgeon use phaco-emulsification (laser technique as it’s popularly known) as primary modality for cataract removal.

Eye Donation: What you need to know and do.

Dr. Quresh Maskati, Ophthalmologist
Q. Who can be an eye donor?A. Anyone can be an eye donor, irrespective of age, sex, religion, caste, creed or blood group.Q. Do religious authorities approve of eye donation?Yes, all religious faiths support this vital sight restoration programme.Q. Is the whole eye used for transplant?A. No, only the thin transparent layer in front of the iris, called the cornea is used for transplant, to replace the diseased or opaque cornea in the eye of the patient (recipient).Q. Do cataracts or the use of spectacles render the cornea unfit for donation?A. No, both these conditions relate to the lens of the eye and not the cornea. In fact, people who have been successfully operated for cataracts or glaucoma or even retinal detachments can also donate their eyes after death. In fact there have been instances of those who have received a corneal transplant themselves donating their corneas after death! All that is required is that the donor have a clear, transparent, healthy cornea at the time of death.Q. Does eye donation disfigure the donor’s face? A. No, the removal of the eyes does not produce disfigurement nor interferewith the customary funeral arrangements.Q. Does the human body reject the transplanted donor’s cornea? How successful are corneal transplants?A. The human cornea does not have any blood supply; hence the risk of rejection is very low. Rejection, if it does occur can be suppressed by timely medication. In general, the chances of success are greater than 80%. In deep anterior lamellar transplants, where the inner lining of the cornea called the endothelium, is not transplanted, the success rate is as high as 95%!Q. What conditions render the cornea unfit for donation?A. Corneas of patients suffering from AIDS, rabies, syphilis, tetanus, septicaemia and certain viral diseases are considered unfit for use for transplant purposes.Q. What about diabetes, hypertension or cancer?A. People with these conditions can also donate their eyes. Eyes from a cancer patient are not used for transplant only if the cancer had a blood borne spread.Q. Is there any use for corneas which are for some reason unfit for transplant?A. Corneas, which for some reason cannot be used for vision restoring corneal transplants, are invaluable for research and training programmes.Q. How will my donation be used?A. After the eyes are removed, they will be evaluated, processed, screened and then supplied to the eye surgeon for transplant.Q. Do corneal transplants guarantee sight to all blind people?A. No, transplants only help when the loss of sight is solely due to corneal defects and the rest of the eye mechanism is intact.Q. How quickly should eyes be removed after death?A. As soon as possible, but eyes can be removed up to 6 hours after death. However, in places where the climate is hot such as most parts of India, a shorter duration, preferably 2 to 4 hours after death is advisable.Q. Is it necessary to transport the donor to the hospital after death?A. No, eye banks have personnel who will come to the donor’s home or place of death and remove the eyes.Q. What is an eye bank?A. An eye bank is the link between the donor and recipient/eye surgeon. It is an organization recognised by the government to collect and distribute human eyes to those who require corneal transplants.Q. What is to be done when a relative expires?A. 1.Keep the death certificate or its copy to show to the eye bank team. They do not need to take it away. You do not need to look for a photocopier machine to make a photocopy in the middle of the night. The eye bank team only needs to look at the certificate to determine:a) The patient is really dead andb) The cause of death, to determine if the eyeball can be useful.    2. Contact your nearest eye bank – in India, most cities have 1919 as the eye bank contact number. Otherwise, check the local telephone directory – most eye banks are listed in the emergency numbers list. The eye bank team will arrive in the next 30-60 minutes, provided you have given them an accurate address with landmarks. The procedure will take only around 30-40minutes.    3. Close the eye lids, while waiting for the eye bank team and put off any overhead fan, to prevent drying of the cornea. However, if there is an air-conditioner, switch it on, if possible.    4. Cover the closed lids with moist cotton wool (if readily available in the house, otherwise do not bother).     5. Raise the donor’s head by 6 inches, by placing 2 pillows under it.Q. Is there any cumbersome paperwork or time consuming formalities?A. None whatsoever. The eye bank team will come with a form, which they will fill themselves. They will only need the signatures of 2 close relatives, giving consent. It does not matter whether the donor had pledged his eyes for donation during his lifetime or not.Q. I believe some blood is also collected?A. Yes, according to WHO guidelines, the team will also collect some blood from the donor, for testing for HIV, hepatitis etc. They will withdraw this from a large vessel or from the heart with a needle puncture.Q. Is there a real need for Eye Donation?A. Yes, in India there are lacs of patients awaiting corneal transplant.. in some eye banks patients wait over a year for their turn. Every year barely 30,000 corneas are donated, so the waiting list keeps growing!Q. Finally, is there any money to be paid?A. No, no monetary transaction is done. Most eye banks recover their running costs by charging a small processing fee to the recipients.Q. If it does not cost to donate eyeballs after death and the procedure is so easy, and encouraged by every religion, why are there such few donors?A. Good question. You tell me! You go around spreading the message of the nobility of eye donation and how easy and hassle free it is and maybe by the time I write next year, this question will need deletion!

Ageing and Eye Problems

Dr. Mukesh Paryani, Ophthalmologist
As the age advanced , the eye also shows signs of ageing and makes it important for everyone to undergo frequent eye checkup which helps us to maintain a good vision at the age we want it the most.The common problems that usually comes with age and needs evaluation and further management  are:Cataract: Cataract is the leading cause of treatable blindness worldwide. It has profound impact on patient’s quality of life .A cataract is a clouding of the eye's lens and is a major cause of blindness in INDIA. Cataract can occur at any age due to a variety of causes. Patients with cataract experience diminution of vision, glare, night blindness, halos and Starbursts around lights, colours appearing duller, dimmer, or browner.Modern cataract surgery is very different from the procedures performed 10 years ago. Cataractsurgery used to require a hospital stay and a lengthy recovery period. Buttoday, cataract surgery is a day care procedure and generally takes less than15 minutes with no stitch, no eye-pad, no injection and the patient is back tomany normal activities by the next day. Post-operative vision has dramaticallyimproved over the years with monofocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) correctingvision for distance and new high-tech IOLs such as multifocal IOLs reducingdependency on glasses for near and intermediate distance alsoDiabetic retinopathy:India is on its way to become  diabetic capital of world.with diabetes on a steep rise with associated bodily stress and lifestyle changes, the incidence of diabetic retinopathy has increased considerablyDiabetes damages the blood vessels of the retina  , thereby causing damage and swelling in the retina. In advanced stages there can be severe bleeding in eye and irreparable blindness.If detected at early stage and treated appropriately on time, it can be  controlled and blindness can be easily prevented.The most important thing is to keep the blood sugars under control and visit eye specialist atleast once in a year after the diabetes has been detected. One has to visit eye specialist more frequently if eye specialist finds existing diabetic retinopathyAge Related Macular Degeneration:Macula is the central portion of the retina, which gives us crisp and clear vision.Age related degeneration can lead to severe visual impairment.most important risk factor in developing this disease is progression of age and genetic predispostionif one notices distortion of images, turned  or tilted images ,or some obstruction in central vision, these could be signs of ARMD and need intervention by the eye specialistGlaucoma:Glaucoma is called as SILENT THIEF OF THE EYEthe reason is that its usually very late by the time patient realizes its symptoms. the important risk factor for glaucoma is having a family history of there is blood pressure, there is  something called as eye pressure or intraocular pressure( IOP).one needs to check IOP on a regular basis with visit to Eye specialistGlaucoma can be easily treated with eye drops in most of the cases and hence blindness due to glaucoma can be controlled if one undergoes regular eye checkup.SO TO SUMMARIZE , ONE NEEDS AT-LEAST ONCE A YEAR EYE CHECKUP AFTER THE AGE OF 40.THESE DISEASE ARE SIGHT THREATENING DISEASE AND NEEDS EARLY DIAGNOSIS AND EARLY INTERVENTION FOR US TO ENJOY GOOD VISION TILL THE END OF OUR LIVES

Keep an Eye Out for Cataracts!

Dr. Smita Mukherjee, Ophthalmologist
If you read there as thea, see halos around your room lights, and see double then it’s time to visit an ophthalmologist! You could possibly have cataractsWhat is Cataract?Cataract is a progressive eye disorder that makes your eyesight deteriorate with time until it affects your vision completely.How exactly does Cataract affect my eyes?Have you ever tried blowing straight into your camera lens and then looking through it? What do you experience? Blurry and clouded vision? This is exactly what happens to your eyes when you are affected- the natural lens that lies behind the iris,turns opaque.Types of CataractsBased on the region they appear in, there are mainly three types of cataracts: subcapsular, nuclear and cortical.1. Subcapsular Cataract: Occurs at the back of the lens2. Nuclear Cataract: Appears deep in the central zone of the lens3. Cortical Cataract: Start from the edges of the lens and dig deeper to its centre.What can cause Cataract?Ageing,Diabetes ,injury or high doses of certain medications could be some common causes of cataracts ,but the treatments remain the sameWhat is the treatment for Cataracts?Using new glasses, strong bifocals, brighter lighting or other visual aids might help in the initial stages. If your vision has started affecting your daily routine to a great extent, you might want to consider surgerySurgery?!As scary as it might sound, Cataract surgeries are actually fairly simple and very commonly done procedures. They also have a high success rate. The surgeon simply replaces the clouded lens with a plastic Intraocular Lens (IOL). These IOL’s then block out ultraviolet and blue lights and helps you see at all distance.So YES, even if you have cataracts, you have nothing to fear. Just don’t turn a blind eye to vision problems, because your sight is PRECIOUS!!

Eye Care in the Monsoon

Dr. Hasanain Shikari, Ophthalmologist
After the heat of the summer, the monsoon is a welcome relief. Yet, the rains bring with them a host of bacteria, viruses and allergens, many of which disturb our delicate eye equilibrium. Let us identify the main eye-related complaints and then establish some easy tips to maintain your eye health this monsoon.Conjunctivitis, also known as pink eye, is the inflammation of the outermost layer of the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelid. This can be caused by irritants like dirt, bacterial or viral infections or may be allergic.Eye Allergies are also known as allergic conjunctivitis.  These are non-infectious and may be seasonal. It leads to red, watery or itchy eyes.Stye (Sty) is usually recognized as a “pimple” on the eyelid. Its an inflamed swelling on the edge of the eyelid and is usually due to bacterial infection.Personal hygiene is important. Prevention is better than cure!Some Eye Care Tips- Keep your eyes clean. Do not rub your eyes with dirty hands, or rather, do not rub your eyes at all.- Maintain hygiene. Wash your hands frequently. Wash your eyes with cold water 2-3 times a day.- Do not share personal items like towels with anyone.- Wear sunglasses to protect your eyes, especially while traveling.- Avoid getting wet in the rain or swimming in the monsoon. This can aggravate existing eye inflammation.- Eat healthy foods. This should include fresh fruits and vegetables. Anti-oxidants will boost your immune system.- Do not self-medicate or use medications given by pharmacists.Go for an eye check-up to an eye specialist if you have symptoms.Healthy diet, healthy body