Endocrinology deals with hormones, hormone systems and hormonal disorders. The organs that come under endocrinology are pituitary gland, adrenal glands, ovaries or testicles, thyroid gland and pancreas. These organs maintain the chemical balance of the body by secreting hormones which regulate all the body systems.Diabetes is the name for a group of diseases which are characterized by abnormalities in the absorption of glucose and blood sugar levels.Relation between the endocrine system and diabetes:The hormone insulin is secreted by the pancreatic beta cells called the islets of Langerhans. It is a peptide hormone that metabolizes carbohydrates, proteins and fats, stimulates the conversion of glycogen or stored protein to usable glucose and also helps the body cells to absorb the glucose. The movement of ionized or free calcium (Ca2+) is also somewhat dependent on insulin.Insulin is secreted from the pancreas in two phases - the first phase occurs when blood sugar level is high and need to be absorbed into the cells while the second phase is associated with a slower production not influenced by blood sugar.Types of diabetes and how they are affected by the endocrine systemType 1 diabetes mellitus: This condition is caused by underproduction of insulin by the pancreatic beta cells. It is called 'insulin dependent diabetes mellitus' (IDDM), since it is directly influenced by the hormone.Type 2 diabetes mellitus: This type of the disorder is not directly dependent on insulin. It is usually caused by obesity and lack of physical exercise. The cells develop resistance to insulin and because of that blood sugar is not absorbed properly. This eventually leads to under-secretion of insulin.Gestational diabetes mellitus: Pregnant women might develop high levels of blood sugar even if they did not have diabetes in the past. This occurs due the changes in the regular hormonal cycles and secretion of pregnancy hormones and can result is complications and miscarriage.Sub-specialties of diabetic endocrinologyDiabetic renal disease: The kidneys filter the blood. If there are chronically high levels of sugar in blood, hormones like erythropoietin (regulates production of red blood cells) and renin (regulates blood plasma and fluid content) are not produced. As a result, the kidneys' capacity is reduced and waste materials build up in blood.Diabetic vision problems: Insulin problems may cause the blood vessels supplying the retina (light sensitive eye tissue) to expand or contract. This causes blurry and distorted vision and pain in the eyes.