Dark circles under or around the eyes is called periorbital hypermelanosis,which can be caused by many factors.The following are the most common causes of dark circles:
●Nutritional deficiency-Anemia (Folic acid,B12,Niacin,etc)
●Fatigue and lack of sleep
●Pregnancy and hormonal changes
●Faulty life style,excessive smoking or alcohol consumption
●Medical problems such as diabetes,hypothyroidism,allergic diathesis
These factors also may also lead to excessive pigmentation
●Thin,translucent lower eyelid skin overlying the orbicularis oculi muscle
●Shadowing due to skin laxity and tear trough
●prominent vasculature below the lower lid
MODALITIES OF TREATMENT ●
Treatment of underlying cause along with topical agents like hydroquinone ,retinoic acid (0.01% to 1%), azelaic acid, kojicacid, vit.c etc can be tried under dermatologist advice .
●Regular moisturizers, sunscreen and application of lightening creams can be beneficial.
●Glycolic peels ,Lactic acid peels, Combination peels involving glycolic and lacticacids, arginine, vitamin C serums are beneficial
Newer Modalities of Treatment
●Mesotherapy using small quatities of glutathione and vitamin c if melanosis is predominant
●If puffiness is predominant,PDC can be injected in small quantities.
●Mesobotox for periorbitalmelanosis with wrinkles
●In case of dark circles with sunken eyeballs temporary fillers are preferred
●Intense pulse light therapy and lasers
●Autologous fat transplantation and fillers in difficult cases