WHAT IS DIABETES?
Diabetes or Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas is no longer able to make insulin, or when the body cannot make good use of insulin that it produces. The common types of diabetes are:
1. TYPE 1 DIABETES
This is a condition in which your immune system destroys insulin-making cells in your pancreas. As a result, the body produces no or very little insulin. Type 1 diabetes is seen in people of all age groups, however, it is common in youngsters or individuals below the age of 18. People with type 1 diabetes have to take insulin every day. Type 1 diabetes is present in approximately 10% of people with diabetes.
2. TYPE 2 DIABETES
This is the most common type of diabetes and accounts for 90% of all diabetes cases. It is generally found in middle-aged and older people. Presently, type 2 diabetes is seen in young people due to rising levels of obesity, inactivity, sedentary lifestyle, and poor eating habits. In type 2 diabetes, the body either does not produce enough insulin or does not respond to insulin. As insulin is not produced properly, the blood glucose level keeps on rising, which releases more insulin. This leads to exhaustion of the pancreas, leading to the production of less insulin and increased blood glucose levels.
3. GESTATIONAL DIABETES (GDM)
This type of diabetes is seen in pregnant women and leads to complications in both mother and child and is almost cured after childbirth. GDM predisposes the mother and child to the risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.
It is also known as borderline diabetes. In this, blood sugar levels are higher than the normal range, but it is not high enough to be classified as type 2 diabetes. It is a warning sign of the onset of diabetes in a person.
QUICK FACTS ABOUT DIABETES:
1. Studies suggest that 463 million people, aged 20-79 years are living with diabetes (1 in 11 people) and this will increase to 700 million by 2045.
2. The proportion of people who have type 2 diabetes are increasing throughout the world.
3. The countries which have the highest number of adults with diabetes are China, India, and the United States of America.
4. India is home to over 77 million adults with diabetes (17.5% of the population), of which 43.9 million are undiagnosed or untreated (57%).
5. India has 171,300 cases of type 1 diabetes cases in children and adolescents (0-19 years).
6. If the total number of diabetics in the world is to be collected in one country, it would be the third biggest country in the world.
7. In the world, 374 million people are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
8. Diabetes is a leading cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attack, stroke, and lower limb amputation
9. Onset of type 2 diabetes can be delayed by eating healthy food, exercising daily, maintaining an ideal weight, and avoiding tobacco.
10. Diabetes can be treated and prevented by medications, following a healthy lifestyle, and regular screening.
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