A medical condition or health condition of a male partner which makes him have a difficult chance of making or cannot make his female partner pregnant is known as Male Infertility. Out of 100, 13 couples cannot get pregnant with unprotected sex. There are many factors affecting fertility in males and females as well. More than a third part of infertility cases are of males and the most common problem is with his sperm delivery or production.
What happens when a male is fertile?
The tiny cells called sperms are produced by a man. The male reproductive system makes, stores, and transports sperm. The male sex hormone testosterone is responsible for this process. Testosterone is made in two testicles that are located in the scrotum behind the penis.
When sperms leave the testicles, they gather into the tube behind the testicles called the epididymis. Then the sperm enters another tube called vas deferens that joins the ejaculatory duct from seminal vesicles just before ejaculation.
During ejaculation, the sperm is mixed with fluid produced from prostate and seminal vesicles hence forming semen. Then this semen travels through the urethra out of the penis.
The fertility of a man depends on the body’s capability of making normal sperm and delivering them. When the sperm enters a female partner’s vagina, then it reaches the cervix and into the uterus till the fallopian tube and if the sperm meets the egg (ova), fertilization takes place.
What are the causes of male infertility?
Following are the few main causes of male infertility:
Sperm disorders - the most common reason for sperm disorders are sperms not grown fully, the odd shape of the sperms, sperms not moving the right way, made in very low numbers or not made at all.
Varicoceles - these are the swollen veins in the scrotum hence they harm the sperm production by blocking the blood drainage. In this condition, the testicles are too warm hence unable to make sperms.
Retrograde ejaculation - this means that the semen goes back into the body into the bladder instead of out of the body.
Immunological infertility - sometimes a man’s immunity makes the antibodies that attack his own sperms. Antibodies are usually made due to some injury, surgery, or infection. Obstruction - chronic infections, vasectomy, swelling, or any developmental defect can obstruct the sperm and as a result, the sperms cannot be ejaculated.
Hormones - very low hormone levels can cause very low or no sperm production.
Chromosomes - change in the number and the structure of the chromosome may also lead to infertility.
Medication - certain medications change sperm production, delivery, or function. Medication used for conditions like arthritis, depression, digestive problems, infections, high blood pressure, cancer, etc.
How can Male Fertility be diagnosed?
Male Infertility can be diagnosed through the following ways:
History and physical examination
What are the non-surgical treatment options for Male Infertility?