Diagnostic Tests

Routine Urine Analysis


Routine Urine Analysis

Also known as Urine Analysis Routine Macroscopy Random Urine
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What is this test?

This test helps to diagnose kidney diseases, liver diseases, urinary tract infections, yeast infections, viral infections, parasitic infections, prostate infections, reactions to certain medicines, or cancers, etc.

What is urine?

Urine is produced by kidneys, which are present on either side of the spine below the rib cage. Kidneys help in filtering the wastes from the blood and in regulating the water quantity in the body. Kidneys also regulate the balance of electrolytes, proteins, and other compounds in the body. The unwanted waste is eliminated through urine, which comes from kidneys through ureters into the bladder and then to the urethra.

Why this test is performed?

Macroscopic urinalysis is performed to detect damage to the urinary system, dehydration, jaundice/bile duct or liver disorder. This test is performed by taking a sample and visually examining. This test is used alongside other tests to add supportive evidence for the diagnosis. The other tests include testing for glucose, bilirubin, protein, microscopic testing, chemical evaluation of urine, etc. This test is also performed as a part of a regular health check-up, during pregnancy, pre-surgery, or during hospital admission, etc. For this test, a urine sample is collected randomly at any time of the day.

This test may be recommended to you if experience symptoms like back pain, abdominal pain, pain while urinating, frequent urination, or an urgency to urinate, etc.


The color of the urine may be affected due to eating beetroot, food dyes, due to certain drugs, or the presence of hemoglobin or myoglobin. Hence, inform your doctor about the current medications and your health conditions before taking the test.

Also known as Routine Urine Analysis Macroscopy.

Test Preparation

Inform your doctor if you are on any medications, have any allergies or underlying medical conditions before your Routine Urine Analysis. Your doctor will give specific instructions depending on your condition on how to prepare for Routine Urine Analysis.

Before collecting the urine sample, clean the urinating area. No other specific preparation is needed for this test.

Understanding your test results

The normal test results may vary depending on gender, age, and health history, etc.

In macroscopic urinalysis the technician checks for the clarity, color, and concentration of the urine.


  • If the color of the urine is red, it may be due to the presence of blood in the urine, which may be due to damage to the urinary system or hemorrhoids.
  • Usually, the color of the urine is pale yellow or a little darker yellow when it is concentrated. Mostly in the mornings, the urine is concentrated and is darker yellow in color.
  • Darker amber colored urine may indicate dehydration.
  • Very dark orange color urine may indicate jaundice or bile duct disorder or liver disorders like liver failure or hepatitis.


  • If the freshly collected urine is cloudy, it may indicate the presence of an infection due to bacteria or white blood cells in the urine or due to other health conditions.
  • Turbid urine is due to precipitation of the specimen which forms crystals. To identify the substances in the urine, further chemical and microscopic tests needed to be performed.

If you get abnormal test results, consult your doctor immediately. Your doctor may recommend further tests or treatments based on your test results.

GenderAge groupsValue
UNISEXAll age groupsThe observations vary depending on the cause
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