Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is expressed primarily by activated monocytes as part of the innate immune response to various microbes, gram-negative bacteria in particular.(1) TNF-alpha is synthesized as a type II membrane protein, which can be cleaved by a membrane-associated metalloproteinase. The subunit that is released will polymerize to form a homotrimer, which is the circulating form of TNF-alpha. The primary function of TNF-alpha is to recruit other leukocytes to the site of infection and to stimulate their activation. TNF-alpha also has some systemic effects, including induction of fever through action on the hypothalamus. In cases of severe gram-negative bacterial infection, septic shock can occur. Septic shock is induced by large-scale production of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-alpha. This disorder is characterized by hypotension, disseminated intravascular coagulation, tachycardia, and increased respiration, and can be fatal.
Dysregulation of TNF-alpha expression is thought to be a critical pathogenic mechanism in numerous autoimmune diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and ankylosing spondylitis (AS).(2) There are currently 5 monoclonal antibodies approved by the FDA for blockage of TNF-alpha as a clinical treatment.(3,4) The different drugs are approved for various diseases, with some available for treatment of pediatric IBD and juvenile RA.
Inform your doctor if you are on any medications, have any allergies or underlying medical conditions before your Tumor Necrosis Factor - Alpha Immunoassay Blood. Your doctor will give specific instructions depending on your condition on how to prepare for Tumor Necrosis Factor - Alpha Immunoassay Blood.
No Preparation required
|UNISEX||All age groups||0.56-1.40 pg/mL|