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Diagnostic Tests

Treponema Pallidum

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Treponema Pallidum

Also known as Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Blood
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What is this test?

Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Blood Test is used for the detection and titration of antibodies IgM, IgG, and IgA to Treponema Pallidum in the blood. This test is highly specific and accurate and hence, used as a confirmatory test for syphilis.

What is Syphilis?

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by bacterial infection. This infection spreads through oral, vaginal, or anal contact with an infected person. It can also spread through direct contact with a syphilis sore. The bacteria which causes syphilis is Treponema pallidum. The stages of syphilis include Primary syphilis, secondary syphilis, and tertiary syphilis.

- Primary syphilis: It is the early stage of syphilis which starts around 2-3 weeks after the infection. In this stage, painless sores appear at the site of exposure to the infection like vagina, penis, mouth, anus, or rectum. These sores are usually called chancres. These chancres can spread easily and can be cured with medicines or they can be self-healed within 3-6 weeks.

- Secondary syphilis: If primary syphilis is not healed and left untreated then secondary syphilis may develop. It may occur within 6 weeks to 6 months after the chancre formation. In this stage, the symptoms include fever, swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, tiredness, rashes without itch is found on the hands and feet which is reddish brown in color.
- Tertiary syphilis: If secondary syphilis is also left untreated, it converts to latent stage, i.e tertiary syphilis. In this stage; the symptoms are absent, but the infection persists. This stage may last for years. This stage if left untreated may damage your organs and lead to numbness, dementia (loss of memory), problems with your eyes, unable to control muscle movements and may even lead to death.

Antibodies are produced when any foreign substance or virus or bacteria enters into the body. Treponema Pallidum Antibodies are formed in the body in response to Treponema pallidum bacteria that causes syphilis. There are three types of Treponema Pallidum Antibodies, i.e. IgM, IgG, and IgA. Presence of these antibodies in the body indicates the presence of a sexually transmitted disease called Syphilis.

Why is this test performed?

This test is performed for the detection and titration of antibodies IgM, IgG, and IgA to Treponema Pallidum in the blood. This test is recommended by your doctor to confirm the presence of a sexually transmitted disease called syphilis infection. Your doctor may ask you to perform this test if you experience symptoms of a syphilis infection such as sore (chancre) at the genital regions or on the throat, itchless reddish-brown rash on palms, the bottom of the feet, fever, swollen lymph glands, body pains, or a sore throat, etc.

If an individual is on the treatment for syphilis then the doctor may ask to perform this test to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment and to know the Treponema Pallidum Antibodies IgM, IgG and IgA levels in the blood.

How often is this test performed?

If you are diagnosed with syphilis then you may have to perform this test on a regular basis or as instructed by the doctor. If you are previously diagnosed with any of the sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), then you may have to perform this test frequently (3-6 months).

Precautions:

Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination test is highly specific and accurate, even though it may give false positive results in individuals suffering from leprosy, infectious mononucleosis, and connective tissue disorders; hence, inform your health care provider about your current health conditions and diseases. Your doctor may ask you to perform a few more additional tests in such patients. If you get positive test results then inform your partner about it and ask he/ she to undergo the test.

Also known as TPHA Hemagglutination Blood, TPHA.

Test Preparation

Inform your doctor if you are on any medications, have any allergies or underlying medical conditions before your Treponema Pallidum. Your doctor will give specific instructions depending on your condition on how to prepare for Treponema Pallidum.

No specific preparation is required for this test.

Understanding your test results

The reference range may vary depending on the gender, age, health history, or your condition, etc.

If your Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination test results show negative, then it may indicate that infection is absent. A negative test result shows a spot of red blood cells on the surface of the test dish or cells settled to a compact bottom.

If your test results show positive, then it may indicate that you are affected with syphilis infection. A positive test result shows an aggregation of red blood cells on the surface of the test dish.

If you receive abnormal tests results, you may consult your doctor immediately. Based on the test results, your doctor may advise you appropriate medical treatments, lifestyle modifications, or further diagnostic tests.

GenderAge groupsValue
UNISEXAll age groupsThe test rseult is positive in cases of infection
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