Rubella Antibodies IgG ELISA Blood Test is used to detect the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against the rubella infection in the blood. This test helps to determine whether a person has a rubella infection or not.
What is a Rubella infection?
Rubella or German measles is an infection caused by the rubella virus. Rubella and measles are not the same infections, though the two illnesses do share some characteristics or similar signs and symptoms. This infection can spread from one person to another through contact with an infected individual and transmitted by coughs. Signs and symptoms of rubella usually develop about 2 to 3 weeks after exposure to the virus. The signs and symptoms of rubella infection are mild fever, runny or stuffy nose, headache, itchy or red eyes, joint aches, enlarged and tender lymph nodes, pink rash on the face, arms and legs, etc.
Rubella infection in pregnant women is a dangerous condition. It can increase the risk of miscarriage or stillbirth. Rubella virus can pass across the placenta and affect the developing baby (fetus). If a pregnant woman is infected with the rubella virus, it can lead to a condition called congenital rubella syndrome in the unborn baby. This condition can cause severe birth defects such as deafness, intellectual disabilities, cataracts, heart defects, low birth weight, skin rash, glaucoma (an eye disease), brain damage, thyroid problems, liver and spleen damage, etc. There is no cure for rubella infection and therefore all women are advised to get vaccinated before they get pregnant.
Rubella is usually diagnosed by checking the presence of the rubella virus or its genetic material (DNA or RNA) and also by the presence of antibodies in the blood that forms in response to infection. The virus attaches to the cell membrane of the host individual and injects the genetic material (DNA or RNA) to start an infection. The virus gets matured within the cell and is released by rupture of the cell. The new viruses start attacking other cells and then multiplies. There is no specific treatment for rubella, but the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine can prevent it. Taking a vaccination may prevent the disease.
Antibodies are produced when any foreign substance or virus or bacteria enters into the body. Detection of antibodies in the body may indicate the presence of infections. This test screen for the IgG antibodies. IgG antibodies against rubella virus are detected in a current or recent infection or in individuals who acquired immunity from vaccination or prior infection. Newborns show the presence of IgG antibodies in case if antibodies are passed from mother during pregnancy.
Why this test is performed?
This test is performed to screen or diagnose the presence of rubella infection. Your doctor may ask to perform this test if he suspects a rubella infection or if you experience any signs and symptoms of rubella such as mild fever, runny or stuffy nose, headache, itchy or red eyes, joint aches, enlarged and tender lymph nodes, pink rash on the face, arms and legs, etc. You may be advised to perform this test if you come in contact with a person with rubella infection. This test is also recommended to check whether an individual has immunity to rubella due to vaccination or to a previous infection.
This test is also recommended in women before or at the beginning of a pregnancy to check the immunity. In pregnant women, your doctor may ask to perform this test if he suspects a rubella infection or in case of any signs and symptoms of rubella such as mild fever, pink rash on the face, arms and legs, or when there are any signs of abnormal development or birth defects in the developing baby (fetus).
Inform your doctor if you are on any medications, have any allergies or underlying medical conditions before your Rubella Antibodies IgG. Your doctor will give specific instructions depending on your condition on how to prepare for Rubella Antibodies IgG.
No specific preparation is required for this test. However, follow all the instructions given by your healthcare provider.
The test results may vary depending on gender, age, health conditions, and other factors.
If the test result is positive or shows the presence of IgG antibodies in the blood, this may indicate that you are likely to have a current or recent rubella infection. Positive results are also seen in individuals who acquired immunity from vaccination or prior infection. In newborns, the positive results may indicate a passive immunity that may last for 6 to 12 months in case if antibodies are passed from mother during pregnancy.
If the test result is negative or no IgG antibodies is found in the blood, this may indicate you are unlikely to have a current rubella infection or you may have no or low immune response towards the infection.
Based on the test results, your doctor may advise appropriate medical treatments or further diagnostic tests.
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