The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are a group of disorders caused by the deficiency of any of the enzymes involved in the stepwise degradation of dermatan sulfate, heparan sulfate, keratan sulfate, or chondroitin sulfate (glycosaminoglycans: GAGs). Undegraded or partially degraded GAGs (also called mucopolysaccharides) are stored in lysosomes and excreted in the urine. Accumulation of GAGs in lysosomes interferes with normal functioning of cells, tissues, and organs resulting in the clinical features observed in MPS disorders. There are 11 known enzyme deficiencies that result in MPS. In addition, abnormal GAG storage is observed in multiple sulfatase deficiency and in I-cell disease. Finally, an abnormal excretion of GAGs in urine is observed occasionally in other disorders including active bone diseases, connective tissue disease, hypothyroidism, urinary dysfunction, and oligosaccharidoses. MPS are autosomal recessive disorders with the exception of MPS II, which follows an X-linked inheritance pattern. Affected individuals typically experience a period of normal growth and development followed by progressive disease involvement encompassing multiple systems. The severity and features vary and may include facial coarsening, organomegaly, skeletal changes, cardiac abnormalities, and developmental delays. Moreover, disease presentation varies from as early as late infancy to adulthood. MPS should begin with MPSSC / Mucopolysaccharides (MPS) Screen, Urine, which includes both the quantitative analysis of total GAGs and qualitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of the specific sulfates. Interpretation is based upon pattern recognition of the specific sulfates detected by MS/MS and the qualitative analysis of their relative amounts of excretion. It is strongly recommended to seek confirmation by an independent method, typically in vitro enzyme assay (available in either blood or cultured fibroblasts from a skin biopsy) and/or molecular analysis.
No special preparation is needed for Mucopolysaccharides Quantitative Random Urine. Inform your doctor if you are on any medications or have any underlying medical conditions or allergies before undergoing Mucopolysaccharides Quantitative Random Urine. Your doctor depending on your condition will give specific instructions.
|UNISEX||All age groups||< 6.5 mg/mmol creatinine|