An HIV-1 genotype blood test is used for the detection of HIV-1 mutations and selecting antiretroviral drugs. This test helps in assessing the resistance of antiretroviral drugs by detecting the mutations in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and protease genes. Genotype assays can be done rapidly and results are obtained fast. This test is performed in recent infection or acute HIV infection. This test is also performed in pregnant women before initiation of the therapy.
What is HIV?
HIV is the abbreviated form of human immunodeficiency virus. As the name indicates it is a viral infection which leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). AIDS can be caused due to either HIV-1 or HIV-2 infection. HIV-1 is the most widely spread virus all over the world. Whereas HIV-2 is prevalent in certain regions like France, West Africa, Portugal, and India. The HIV-2 infection has a slower rate of disease progression when compared to HIV-1 infected individuals. If the individual is infected with HIV, the virus gets replicated by making many copies of itself. The main targeted cells for HIV infection is CD-4. CD-4 cells are a type of white blood cells and help in fighting infections. The virus replicates and spreads all over the body, mostly it gets spread into lymph nodes and spleen. In most cases, the HIV infection remains asymptomatic in early stages of the infection. During this asymptomatic stage, the virus replicates and increases in the number and starts destroying CD-4 cells. For about 3-8 weeks the immune system produces antibodies to fight against HIV and the HIV viral load decreases and the symptoms cannot be seen but the infection remains. Hence it is important to detect the infection as early as possible so that the treatment can be started. This HIV infection can be treated but not cured.
Why this test is performed?
This test may be recommended to you, if antiretroviral therapy is not working or to check the effectiveness of the treatment or if you have been previously diagnosed with HIV-1 infection and receiving antiretroviral therapy. This test is also recommended before starting antiretroviral treatment. This test may also be recommended if you experience symptoms like fever, headache, sore throat, dry cough and tiredness for a long time, swollen lymph nodes, muscle aches, joint pains, skin rashes, itching, red breakouts, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating at night, which means your treatment is not efficient, etc. This test is also be recommended during pregnancy.
This test may not be recommended if your viral load is below 500 copies/ml. This test is performed if the viral load is above 1000 copies/ml or if the viral load level is in between 500 to 1000 copies/ml.
Inform your doctor if you are on any medications, have any allergies or underlying medical conditions before your HIV 1. Your doctor will give specific instructions depending on your condition on how to prepare for HIV 1.
There is no specific preparation required for this test.
The reference range may vary depending on the gender, age, health history, your condition, etc.
The test results are given in letters and numbers. The letters refer to amino acid related to gene and the numbers refer to the mutations in the genome. The report may also give an interpretation of the drugs that are resistant to the HIV-1 and also the drugs that are susceptible to the HIV-1. This information can be explained to you by your doctor, hence consult your doctor with your test reports.
|UNISEX||All age groups||Antigen is detected in case of an infection|