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Fluid Routine Microscopy Synovial Fluid

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Fluid Routine Microscopy Synovial Fluid

Also known as Fluid Analysis Microscopy Synovial Fluid
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What is this test?

Fluid Analysis Microscopy Synovial Fluid Test is used to analyze the synovial fluid (fluid in the spaces between the joints) to diagnose the diseases or conditions affecting joints.

What is Synovial Fluid?

Synovial fluid is a thick liquid made in the space between the joints. This fluid is produced by synovial membranes which line the inner surface of joints. It is necessary to reduce the friction of the joint movement in the shoulder, knees, hips, hands, and feet. Variety of diseases or conditions affecting joint structure and function can cause synovial fluid changes. Normally, the synovial fluid contains a small number of proteins, glucose, red blood cells, and white blood cells. In case of any diseases or conditions affecting joints, the levels of these constituents may get disrupted.

Common conditions that affect the joints are autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (pain and swelling in the joints), or lupus, osteoarthritis (pain, stiffness, and swelling of joints), gout (tenderness of joints), septic arthritis (joint infection), joint injury etc. But joint abnormalities can cause pain, swelling or accumulation of synovial fluid in joints. This test helps to diagnose a variety of diseases or conditions affecting the joints.

Why this test is performed?

This test is performed to diagnose the conditions or diseases that cause pain, swelling and synovial fluid accumulation in joints. Your doctor may ask to perform this test if you experience any signs and symptoms of joint abnormalities such as pain, redness, swelling, fluid build-up, etc.

This test is recommended to monitor and diagnose the conditions such as autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (pain and swelling in the joints), or lupus, osteoarthritis (pain, stiffness, and swelling of joints), gout (tenderness of joints), septic arthritis (joint infection), joint injury etc. However, your doctor may ask to perform a few more additional tests to confirm the diagnosis.

Also known as Fluid Routine Examination Microscopy Synovial Fluid.

Test Preparation

Inform your doctor if you are on any medications, have any allergies or underlying medical conditions before your Fluid Routine Microscopy Synovial Fluid. Your doctor will give specific instructions depending on your condition on how to prepare for Fluid Routine Microscopy Synovial Fluid.

Your healthcare provider may ask to fast (not to eat or drink) before the test. This test may be performed after fasting or at random. Follow all the instructions given by your healthcare provider.

Understanding your test results

If the test results show presence of very high levels of proteins, red blood cells, white blood cells, low glucose levels, and a cloudy or turbid synovial fluid may indicate osteoarthritis (a degenerative disease that causes pain, stiffness, and swelling of joints), autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (pain and swelling in the joints), or lupus, septic arthritis (joint infection), or gout (tenderness of joints). However, a few more additional tests may also be performed depending on the suspected cause and typical results to diagnose the exact cause of the condition.

Increased neutrophils levels in the synovial fluid may indicate a bacterial infection and high levels of eosinophils may indicate parasitic arthritis, Lyme disease (an infection caused by a bacteria by the bite of an infected tick), or tubercular arthritis. Identification of crystals in the fluid may indicate gout (tenderness of joints). The presence of blood or very high levels of red blood cells in the fluid may indicate a bleeding or a joint injury.

If you get abnormal test results, consult with your doctor immediately. Based on the test results, your doctor may advise you appropriate medical treatments or further diagnostic tests.

GenderAge groupsValue
UNISEXAll age groupsColorless to pale yellow
UNISEXAll age groups7.4
UNISEXAll age groups< 10 mg/dl lower than blood glucose levels
UNISEXAll age groupsLower than whole blood levels
UNISEXAll age groups< 100/mm cube
UNISEXAll age groups> 1000 cells/mm cube
UNISEXAll age groups0-200 cells
UNISEXAll age groups< 2g/dL
UNISEXAll age groupsThe cell type depends on the cause and is reported by pathologist
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