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Diagnostic Tests

Fluid Analysis Microscopy Peritoneal Fluid

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Fluid Analysis Microscopy Peritoneal Fluid

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What is this test?

Fluid Analysis Microscopy Peritoneal Fluid Test is used to detect the cause of build-up of peritoneal fluid (a fluid made in the abdominal cavity) in the abdomen. This test also helps to differentiate between two types of fluids transudates and exudates.

What is Peritoneal Fluid?

Peritoneal fluid is a liquid made in the space in the abdomen around the internal organs. This fluid is present in small quantities between the layers of the abdominal wall. It is a straw-colored and clear fluid. It is necessary to reduce the friction of organ movement during digestion. The condition of excess accumulation of this fluid in the peritoneum (the membrane lining the abdomen) may cause peritonitis (swelling of the peritoneum).

An infection, injury or inflammation of the peritoneum may cause accumulation of fluid in it. The fluid that builds up, in this case, is known as an exudate. Conditions such as autoimmune diseases, infections, pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), ruptured gallbladder, metastatic cancer (cancer that spread from one site to another), and lymphoma (a blood cancer that affects white blood cell) can cause this type of fluid. Exudates are cloudy fluid with increased levels of protein and cell count.

The pressure imbalance within the blood vessels results in fluid leakage from blood vessels. The fluid that builds up, in this case, is known as a transudate. Conditions such as congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis or nephrotic syndrome ( a kidney disorder) can cause this type of fluid. Transudates are clear fluid with decreased levels of protein and cell count.

This test helps to determine the type of peritoneal fluid that has to build up in the abdomen. It is important to identify the possible causes of fluid accumulation and inflammation of the peritoneum.

Why this test is performed?

This test is performed to diagnose the conditions or diseases that can cause fluid accumulation in the peritoneum and/ or peritonitis (swelling of the membrane lining the abdomen). Your doctor may ask to perform this test if you experience any signs and symptoms of peritonitis such as chills, fever, abdominal pain, fluid in the abdomen, nausea or vomiting, etc. This test is also performed if your doctor suspects cancer of the abdominal lining. However, if an infection is suspected a few more additional tests may also be performed to find the exact cause of the infection.

Test Preparation

Inform your doctor if you are on any medications, have any allergies or underlying medical conditions before your Fluid Analysis Microscopy Peritoneal Fluid. Your doctor will give specific instructions depending on your condition on how to prepare for Fluid Analysis Microscopy Peritoneal Fluid.

Your healthcare provider may ask to empty your bladder before the test. Follow all the instructions given by your healthcare provider.

Understanding your test results

If the test results detect the type of fluid as exudate it may indicate injury or inflammation of the peritoneum. Conditions that may cause exudates are infections, trauma (injury), autoimmune diseases, pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), ruptured gallbladder, metastatic cancer (cancer that spread from one site to another), and lymphoma (a blood cancer that affects white blood cell), etc. However, a few more additional tests may also be performed depending on the suspected cause and typical results to diagnose the exact cause of the condition.

If the test results detect the type of fluid as transudate it may indicate conditions such as congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis or nephrotic syndrome (a kidney disorder) can cause this type of fluid.

If you get abnormal test results, consult with your doctor immediately. Based on the test results, your doctor may advise you appropriate medical treatments or further diagnostic tests.

GenderAge groupsValue
UNISEXAll age groupsThe cell type depends on the cause and is reported by pathologist
UNISEXAll age groups< 500 leukocytes/microlitre
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