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Diagnostic Tests

Electrolytes Ion Selective Electrode 24 Hour Urine

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Electrolytes Ion Selective Electrode 24 Hour Urine

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What is this test?

This test is used to find out the electrolytes (Sodium, Potassium, Chloride) levels in the urine over a 24 hour period.

What are Electrolytes?

Electrolytes are the minerals in the body that are present in the blood, urine, tissues and other body fluids. Electrolytes are important to the body as they balance the amount of water and acid-base pH levels in the body. They also help in moving out the waste from the cells and nutrients into the cells. If the amount of water in the body changes then the electrolytes levels become too high or low and may lead to dehydration or overhydration.

Sodium:

Sodium is one of the essential minerals needed for the body. It is naturally presented in the food items like canned meat, poultry, fish, ham, sausage, salted nuts, beans etc. It is important for the body to regulate blood volume, to control blood pressure and to maintain osmotic equilibrium and pH levels in the body. Sodium is an important electrolyte and helps in the neuron function. Hypernatremia is a condition in which there is a high level of sodium in the blood than the normal range. Hyponatremia is a condition where a low level of sodium is seen in the blood.

Potassium:

Potassium is essential for cellular biochemical reactions and energy metabolism. It is also needed for the synthesis of proteins from amino acids in the cells. It also participates in the metabolism of carbohydrates, glucose, and glycogen. Potassium is necessary for building muscle and for normal growth.

Chloride:

Chloride is an important mineral and a type of electrolyte which works with other electrolytes like potassium and sodium. Chloride is an electrically charged mineral and helps balance acids and bases in the body. It also moves fluid in and out of the cells. Hence low levels of chloride may lead to dehydration and high levels indicate improper functioning of kidneys.

Why this test is performed?

The Electrolytes 24 Hour Urine Test is done to know whether an individual is having normal or abnormal electrolytes levels in the urine. The doctor may ask to perform this test if an individual is suffering from conditions like hypernatremia (high levels of sodium in the blood), hyponatremia (low levels of sodium in the blood), hyperkalemia (high potassium levels in the blood), hypokalemia (low levels of potassium in the blood), liver failure, kidney dysfunction. If symptoms like diarrhea, vomiting, edema (abnormal accumulation of fluid in the tissues of the body), insufficient urine production, fatigue, weakness, lack of energy, dry mouth (insufficient saliva in the mouth), are seen in an individual then the doctor may recommend doing this test.

This test is also done to determine the risk of developing a kidney dysfunction, shortness of breath. If an individual is on the treatment of anti-diuretic medications like hydrochlorothiazide, chlorthalidone etc., then the doctor may ask to perform this test to evaluate and to check the effectiveness of the treatment and sodium levels in the urine. This helps the doctor to rule out the patient disease condition. Generally, when a patient is diagnosed with kidney failure, cirrhosis (severe liver damage causes a scar on the liver and liver failure) or malnutrition (lack of sufficient nutrients in the body) visits hospital for a general check-up, the doctor may ask to undergo the Electrolytes Random Urine Test which gives a better status of the condition. Mostly, this test is done along with other tests to confirm the diagnosis.

Precautions:

Drugs like antibiotics, lithium, furosemide, aspirin, digoxin, phenytoin, insulin, torsemide, hydrochlorothiazide etc may change the levels of Electrolytes in the urine. So inform your doctor prior to the test if you are on these medications.

Frequency:

If you have been diagnosed with hypernatremia, hyponatremia, malnutrition, hypokalemia, hyperkalemia, hypercalcemia, or hypocalcemia, kidney dysfunction your doctor may advise you to get this test done once in every 3months to once in a year based on your clinical condition.

Pathology test parameters:

Sodium, Potassium, Chloride 24 Hour urine tests.

Also known as Electrolytes (Na+ K+ Cl-) 24 Hour Urine.

Test Preparation

Inform your doctor if you are on any medications, have any allergies or underlying medical conditions before your Electrolytes Ion Selective Electrode 24 Hour Urine. Your doctor will give specific instructions depending on your condition on how to prepare for Electrolytes Ion Selective Electrode 24 Hour Urine.

Healthcare professional may ask you to collect the urine sample in a sterile container over a 24 hour period. Follow all the appropriate instructions given by the healthcare professional during and after the urine sample collection. Submit the collected urine samples in the lab for the test.

Understanding your test results

If sodium levels are more than the normal range then it may indicate that there may be conditions like kidney dysfunction or kidney failure, adrenal glands disorder, diabetes insipidus (the disorder of salt and water metabolism), Cushing syndrome (overproduction of cortisol by adrenal glands), increased salt intake in the diet.

If potassium levels are more than the normal range then it may indicate that there may be conditions like kidney dysfunction or kidney failure, diabetic acidosis (diabetic complication where body produces too much blood acids), Addison disease (disorder in which adrenal gland doesn’t produce enough hormones) and high consumption of food items containing potassium, hypomagnesemia (low levels of magnesium), infection, anorexia (eating disorder causing people to fear about weight gain), bulimia (eating disorder in which a person eats a large amount of food in short intervals), dehydration, head injury or traumatic injury (sudden physical injury caused by external force).

If chloride levels are higher than the normal range then it may indicate conditions like Bartter syndrome or Gitelman syndrome, dehydration, Addison disease (where adrenal glands do not release enough hormones).

If sodium levels are less than the normal range, then it indicates that there may be a chance for conditions kidney disease, diarrhea (frequent discharge of stools in liquid form), cirrhosis (severe liver damage causes a scar on the liver and liver failure), Addison disease (The disorder in which adrenal gland doesn’t produce enough hormones), hyperaldosteronism (overproduction of aldosterone by adrenal glands)malnutrition (lack of sufficient nutrients in the body), edema (abnormal accumulation of fluid in the tissues of the body) caused by heart failure, vomiting, excessive sweating, dehydration.

If potassium levels are less than the normal range, then it indicates that there may be a chance for conditions like alcoholism (uncontrolled drinking), electrolyte imbalance, hypoaldosteronism (decreased levels of hormone aldosterone).

If chloride levels are lower than the normal range then it may indicate lack of chloride in your diet, Cushing syndrome (a condition due to exposure of high levels of cortisol), Conn syndrome (endocrine disorder where excessive aldosterone hormone is secreted by adrenal glands), congestive heart failure, malabsorption, diarrhea, etc.

GenderAge groupsValue
UNISEXAll age groups100 - 260mEq/24hr
UNISEXAll age groups25 - 100 mEq/24hr
UNISEXAll age groups80 - 250mEq/day
UNISEXAll age groups15 - 25 mg/kg/24hr
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