Diagnostic Tests

Bone Marrow Trephine Biopsy


Bone Marrow Trephine Biopsy

Also known as Bone Marrow Trephine Biopsy Microscopy Bone Marrow
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What is this test?

Trephine biopsy of bone marrow is a test used for detecting any bone marrow disorders like hypocellular bone marrow or bone marrow fibrosis. This test shows the architecture of the bone marrow and helps in detecting an abnormal distribution of cells, bone marrow granulomas, and focal lymphoid infiltrates, multiple myelomas, metastatic tumors, etc. This test also helps in the detection of non-hemopoietic neoplasms, granulomatous tissues, AIDS, etc.

What is bone marrow?

Bone marrow is a soft tissue present inside the bones that help in the formation of blood cells like red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBCs), and platelets. Red blood cells help in carrying of oxygen and nutrients, white blood cells help to fight infection and platelets help in clotting of the blood.

What is the importance of this test?

  • Lymphoproliferative Disorders: Lymphoproliferative disorders are the conditions in which the excessive amount of lymphocytes are produced. A bone marrow trephine biopsy is indicated in patients in whom treatment is essential. This test procedure helps in the follow up of the treatment.

-Hodgkin's disease: Bone marrow trephine biopsy test is helpful in diagnosing Hodgkin’s disease. Hodgkin’s disease is a type of lymphomas where the blood cancer starts from the lymphocytes.

-Multiple myelomas and other plasma cell neoplasms: A bone marrow trephine biopsy is essential for the diagnosis of multiple myelomas and other plasma cells neoplasms. Along with bone marrow trephine biopsy, bone marrow aspiration is also performed. Multiple myelomas are a type of blood cancer. In this cancer starts in plasma cells.

-Metastatic Tumor: A bone marrow trephine biopsy is essential if bone marrow examination is being carried out for a suspected metastatic disease because the rate of detection of tumor cells is higher than with bone marrow aspirate. A metastatic tumor is a type of cancer that spreads from its site of origin to the other parts of the body.

-Granulomatous Diseases: A bone marrow trephine biopsy is always indicated if bone marrow examination is being performed for suspected granulomatous diseases such as sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, cryptococcosis, or histoplasmosis.

-Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS): A bone marrow trephine biopsy is always indicated in AIDS patients. AIDS is caused due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which affects your immune system.

Why this test is performed?

This test may be recommended to you if you are suspected of having lymphomas or lymphoproliferative disorders, multiple myelomas, metastatic tumors, granulomatous diseases, AIDS, etc. This test is also recommended when a bone marrow aspiration test has failed or the results acquired are inadequate. For the assessment of cellularity, this test will be recommended. If you are suspected to have focal lesions, bone marrow fibrosis, etc, this test will be performed. Also if there is a need to study the architecture of bone marrow or to study bone structure or bone marrow blood vessels this test will be performed.

Test Preparation

Inform your doctor if you are on any medications, have any allergies or underlying medical conditions before your Bone Marrow Trephine Biopsy. Your doctor will give specific instructions depending on your condition on how to prepare for Bone Marrow Trephine Biopsy.

No specific preparation is required for this test.

Understanding your test results

The normal test results may vary depending on age, health history, medical condition, etc.

The test results can be interpreted only by your doctor. Hence consult your doctor soon after receiving your lab reports for further diagnosis or medical intervention.

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UNISEXAll age groupsResults vary depending on the cause
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