This test is used to analyze the level of adenosine deaminase enzyme present in the pleural fluid of an individual. This test is useful in evaluating, identifying, assessing the presence of bacterial, viral or auto-immune diseases like extrapulmonary tuberculosis (Mycobacterial infections apart from lungs and respiratory system), HIV, pericarditis, etc.
What is Adenosine Deaminase?
Adenosine deaminase is an enzyme which plays a role in the conversion of adenosine to inosine during purine metabolism. The enzyme breaks down the adenosine present in food and for the synthesis of nucleic acids within cells. It also plays a role in the development and maintenance of immunity within the body. The enzyme stimulates the release of immune cells in the presence of bacterial, viral or other infective agents. Absence of adenosine deaminase enzyme may prevent the formation of the immune cells (T-Lymphocytes, B-Lymphocytes) which leads to reduced immunity and increased sensitivity to bacterial and viral infections.
What is Pleural Fluid?
The space between the chest wall and lungs is called the pleural cavity, the pleural cavity is made of two pleura(layers) called as the outer pleura or parietal pleura and inner or visceral pleura and is filled by a small amount of fluid also called the pleural fluid. The pleural fluid lubricates the lungs and prevents the friction between the chest wall and lungs. The volume and composition of this fluid may change due to an imbalance of pressure of liquid between the blood vessels (Cirrhosis, heart failure), pancreatic diseases or disorders, cancers (lung and pancreatic cancers), infections (Pneumonia, tuberculosis), autoimmune disorders, etc.
Why is this test recommended?
This test is recommended to when you may experience certain symptoms like difficulty in breathing, chest pain or pressure, weakness, dizziness, swelling and painful joints, difficulty in moving, weakness or tenderness of joints, muscle and back pain, redness around major joints like knees, fever, upper abdominal pain or feeling of fullness, etc.
This test can also be recommended by the doctor if you had suffered from diseases like osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, tuberculosis, bacterial or viral pericarditis, leukemia (cancer which affects blood and bone marrow), autoimmune diseases, or any other similar illnesses in the past.
Inform your doctor if you are on any medications, have any allergies or underlying medical conditions before your ADA Pleural Fluid. Your doctor will give specific instructions depending on your condition on how to prepare for ADA Pleural Fluid.
Higher or lower values of adenosine deaminase in pleural fluid test results may indicate that the individual may have disease or conditions like extrapulmonary tuberculosis, trauma, kidney or liver diseases, cancers or tumors, bacterial or viral pericarditis, rheumatic disease, etc.
Based on the test results, your doctor may advise you appropriate medical treatments, lifestyle modifications, or further diagnostic tests, etc.
|MALE||All age groups||< 40U/L|
|FEMALE||All age groups||< 40U/L|