Tramadol

Description

Tramadol is a synthetic painkiller belonging to a group of medicines known as Opioid Analgesics. It is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. It is also used in relieving acute pain after surgery.

Side effects

Major & minor side effects for Tramadol

  • Constipation
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Dizziness
  • Sense of imbalance
  • Headache
  • Sleepiness
  • Agitation and anxiety
  • Indigestion
  • Convulsions
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Shortness of breath
  • Itching or rash
  • Nervousness

Uses of Tramadol

What is it prescribed for?

  • Moderate to severe pain
  • Chronic pain
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Concerns

Commonly asked questions

  • Onset of action
    The effect of this medicine can be observed within an hour of administration.
  • Duration of effect
    The effect of this medicine lasts for about 9 hours of duration.
  • Safe with alcohol?
    Avoid or limit the use of alcohol while you are taking this medicine. Any activity requiring a high level of mental alertness like operating heavy machinery or driving should be avoided.
  • Is it habit forming?
    Mild to moderate habit forming tendencies have been reported and hence requires careful administration and withdrawal.
  • Usage in pregnancy?
    Use of this medicine is not recommended for use in pregnant women as there is a lack of conclusive evidence from clinical studies. However, the potential benefits might warrant the use of this medication inspite of the risks involved. You should consult a doctor before using this medicine.
  • Usage while breast-feeding?
    This medicine is not likely to be present in the breastmilk in alarming quantities. However, the risk of adverse effects on the nursing infant can not be ruled out and hence it is not recommended for use. You should consult your doctor and discuss the potential benefits and risks before deciding to take this medicine.

Allergy

Tramadol is not recommended for use if you have a known history of allergy to Tramadol or other medications belonging to the class Opiate Analgesics.

Severe asthma and breathing problems

Tramadol is not recommended if you have breathing difficulties which may be caused due to various conditions like Asthma, Hypercapnia etc.
Warnings for special population

Pregnancy

Use of this medicine is not recommended for use in pregnant women as there is a lack of conclusive evidence from clinical studies. However, the potential benefits might warrant the use of this medication inspite of the risks involved. You should consult a doctor before using this medicine.

Breast-feeding

This medicine is not likely to be present in the breastmilk in alarming quantities. However, the risk of adverse effects on the nursing infant can not be ruled out and hence it is not recommended for use. You should consult your doctor and discuss the potential benefits and risks before deciding to take this medicine.
General warnings

Addiction

Tramadol has a high potential for addiction and abuse even at recommended dosages especially with the extended release form. You should be properly counselled about the abuse potential of this medicine. Proper safety monitoring and management of dose quantity is necessary in these cases.

Bronchial Asthma

Tramadol should be used with caution if you are suffering from an acute or chronic form of Bronchial asthma. Other diseases that might show asthma-like symptoms like Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease, Hypercapnia, Hypoxia should also be considered while prescribing this medication. Proper safety monitoring and dose adjustments should be done in such cases. It is advised to administer this medication in a monitored environment with equipments to handle any possible emergency.

Fall in blood pressure

Tramadol can cause a temporary fall in blood pressure which can worsen based on posture (Orthostatic Hypotension). This can happen due to a pre-existing disease or other medications being administered at the same time. Proper clinical monitoring and dose adjustments are recommended in such cases. It should not be administered if you are suffering from severe heart ailments.

Impaired brain function

Tramadol can increase the risk of side effects in patients suffering from a brain tumor or head injury. The dose should be adjusted based on the severity of impairment and the patient should be monitored in the initial stages of administration. It is not recommended for use in patients who are in a coma.

Gastrointestinal disease

Tramadol should not be given to patients having an obstructive disease of the Gastrointestinal Tract. The side effects may become more severe and sometimes the symptoms or the disease itself might worsen.

Other medicines

Tramadol has a potential of interacting with a large number of medications. Report the use of all medications including supplements and herbs so that the side effects can be minimized.

Reduced fertility

Prolonged use of Tramadol can reduce fertility in males and females in the reproductive age group. Patients should be informed about the potential effect on reproductive capabilities.

Seizures

Tramadol can cause seizures even at recommended doses especially in patients suffering from epilepsy and other conditions of the brain. Suitable dose adjustment and clinical monitoring are advised in such cases.

Suicidal Tendencies

Tramadol should be administered with caution in patients who have shown suicidal tendencies in the past or present. This can be attributed to certain conditions or use of other medication that are known to cause suicidal tendencies upon administration.

Elderly

Tramadol should be admistered with caution in the elderly as the risk of severe adverse effects are very high. Suitable adjustment in dose quantity and safety monitoring may be required in such cases.

Use in children

Tramadol is not recommended for use in children below 17 years of age as safety parameters are not set for this age group.

Withdrawal symptoms

Withdrawal of Tramadol should be slow and steady especially with the extended release form of the medicine. Symptoms of withdrawal include tremors, nausea and vomiting, chills and fever, diarrhea and even hallucinations in some cases. The dose reduction should be based on the symptoms and should be properly tapered.

Method of intake

Tramadol should be taken as prescribed by the doctor. Use of this medicine without prescription should be avoided. Never adopt other means like crushing the tablet and inhaling or injecting in veins. These methods of intake can be fatal.

Missed Dose

Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. The missed dose can be skipped if it is almost time for the next scheduled dose. Try not to miss any dose as the quantity and timings are very specific and non-adherence could cause some side effects.

Overdose

Report any incidence of overdose to the doctor immediately as the symptoms can be fatal especially if it is consumed by a child or a person using it without prescription. Symptoms of overdose may include slow rate of breathing, decreased heartbeat rate, severe drowsiness, and fainting. Immediate medical attention may be required if the symptoms are severe.
All drugs interact differently for person to person. You should check all the possible interactions with your doctor before starting any medicine.
Interaction with Alcohol

Description

Using this medicine with alcohol may increase the nervous system side effects like dizziness, difficulty in concentrating etc.

Instructions

Avoid or limit the use of alcohol while you are taking this medicine. Any activity requiring a high level of mental alertness like operating heavy machinery or driving should be avoided.
Interaction with Medicine

Amitriptyline

Fluoxetine

Ketoconazole

Ofloxacin

Warfarin

Codeine

Selegiline

Theophylline

Disease interactions

Liver Disease

Tramadol should be given with caution if you are suffering from impaired liver function especially where the disease is in advanced stages. Suitable dose adjustment should be done based on the extent of impairment.

Kidney Disease

Tramadol should be given with caution if you are suffering from kidney impairment. Suitable adjustments in dose and time duration between two doses might be required based on the extent of impairment.
Food interactions
Information not available.
Lab interactions
Information not available.
Take Tramadol as instructed by the doctor. Your dose is likely to be changed by the doctor during the course of treatment and hence all changes should be properly followed. Do not consume this medicine in larger or smaller quantities than prescribed. You are likely to experience some side effects whenever there is a change in dose quantity or timings. The usage should be stopped gradually over time as instructed.
Miscelleneous

Food timings: Information not available

Administration time: Information not available

Sleep inducing: Information not available

How it works
Tramadol acts on the brain and nervous system by changing the perception and response to pain.
Legal Status

Approved

Approved

Approved

Approved

Classification

Category

Narcotic analgesics

Schedule

Schedule H

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https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/medicine/22863

DailyMed - TRAMADOL HCL- tramadol hydrochloride tablet [Internet]. Dailymed.nlm.nih.gov. 2017 [cited 7 March 2017]. Available from:

https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ae7c54b1-b440-4cca-97e8-e5b825413d32

Tramadol | C16H25NO2 - PubChem [Internet]. Pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. 2017 [cited 7 March 2017]. Available from:

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/33741#section=Top

Tramadol Capsules - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses [Internet]. Drugs.com. 2017 [cited 7 March 2017]. Available from:

https://www.drugs.com/pro/tramadol-capsules.html

tramadol Full Prescribing Information, Dosage & Side Effects | CIMS India [Internet]. Mims.com. 2017 [cited 7 March 2017]. Available from:

http://www.mims.com/india/drug/info/tramadol/?type=full&mtype=generic#Indications

Ultram, Ultram ER (tramadol) dosing, indications, interactions, adverse effects, and more [Internet]. Reference.medscape.com. 2017 [cited 7 March 2017]. Available from:

http://reference.medscape.com/drug/ultram-er-tramadol-343324#0

Tramadol: MedlinePlus Drug Information [Internet]. Medlineplus.gov. 2017 [cited 7 March 2017]. Available from:

https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a695011.html

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Information on this page was last updated on 13 Mar 2017

Disclaimer

We’ve made all possible efforts to ensure that the information provided here is accurate, up-to-date and complete, however, it should not be treated as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Practo only provides reference source for common information on medicines and does not guarantee its accuracy or exhaustiveness. The absence of a warning for any drug or combination thereof, should not be assumed to indicate that the drug or combination is safe, effective, or appropriate for any given patient. Practo does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information provided above. If you have any doubts about your medication then we strongly recommend that you consult with your doctor, nurse or healthcare provider. See detailed T&C here.