Metoprolol

Description

Metoprolol is a beta-blocker that works on the heart and blood vessels. It is used to treat high blood pressure and chest pain. It slows down the activity of your heart allowing your heart to beat slower and less forcefully. As a result, Metoprolol helps to prevent abnormally fast heartbeats. It also reduces the pressure at which blood is pumped out of the heart and around the body. Metoprolol prevents heart damage following a heart attack. The actions of Metoprolol in preventing migraine headaches are not clear. It also helps to control symptoms like a fast heartbeat and shivering that are associated with an overactive thyroid gland. Side-effects of Metoprolol are dizziness, headache, breathing difficulty, and low blood pressure. If you feel dizzy or tired, care must be taken while driving a vehicle or operating machinery. Do not take this medicine if you are previously allergic to it. Metoprolol is available as metoprolol tartrate and metoprolol succinate. Metoprolol tartrate is an immediate-release form and should be taken several times a day as directed. Metoprolol succinate has a long-acting effect on the body and can be taken once a day. Metoprolol can be taken with or without food. For the ease of remembering, take this medicine around the same time every day. Make sure to eat a healthy and balanced diet. Appropriate lifestyle changes like low-fat diet, exercise, and stop smoking to feel better along with this medicine. You may have to take this medicine for the long-term. Do not stop taking this medicine unless your doctor tells you to stop.

Side effects

Major & minor side effects for Metoprolol

  • Breathing difficulty
  • Low blood pressure
  • Blurred vision
  • Dizziness
  • Slow heartbeat
  • Shortness of breath
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Skin rash
  • Tiredness
  • Headache
  • Weight gain

Uses of Metoprolol

What is it prescribed for?

  • Hypertension
  • Angina Pectoris
  • Heart Attack
  • Congestive Heart Failure
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Migraine Prevention
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Concerns

Commonly asked questions

  • Onset of action
    Metoprolol shows its effects within one hour of oral administration. When given in the form of an intravenous infusion, the action starts in 20 minutes.
  • Duration of effect
    The effect of metoprolol lasts for 3 to 6 hours upon oral administration. This increases to 5 to 6 hours upon intravenous infusion.
  • Safe with alcohol?
    Avoid drinking alcohol while taking Metoprolol because it can lower the blood pressure drastically.
  • Is it habit forming?
    No habit-forming tendency has been reported for Metoprolol.
  • Usage in pregnancy?
    Pregnant women often are prescribed with Metoprolol for treating heart conditions. Metoprolol is not known to cause birth defects when taken by pregnant women. Hence it is acceptable for use upon your doctor's recommendation. All the risks and benefits should be discussed with your doctor before starting this medicine.
  • Usage while breast-feeding?
    Metoprolol is safe to use during breastfeeding. It passes into breast milk in very low levels that are not expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Hence it is acceptable for use upon your doctor's recommendation.

Allergy

Avoid taking Metoprolol if you are previously allergic to it. A serious allergic reaction to this medicine is rare. Seek immediate medical attention if you notice any symptoms of allergic reactions such as skin rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, breathing difficulties, etc.

Severe bradycardia

Bradycardia or slow heart rate occurs when your heart beats less than 60 times per minute. Metoprolol is not recommended to treat a slow heart rate.

Second or third-degree heart block

There are electrical signals that control the heartbeat. These signals tell your heart muscle to contract and pump blood correctly. Heart block occurs when these signals are slowed down. Heart block is named first-, second-, or third-degree. First-degree heart block is the least severe, second-degree heart block is severe and can often progress to third-degree heart block, the most severe form. Metoprolol is not recommended to treat second or third-degree heart block that requires emergency attention.
Warnings for special population

Pregnancy

Pregnant women often are prescribed with Metoprolol for treating heart conditions. Metoprolol is not known to cause birth defects when taken by pregnant women. Hence it is acceptable for use upon your doctor's recommendation. All the risks and benefits should be discussed with your doctor before starting this medicine.

Breast-feeding

Metoprolol is safe to use during breastfeeding. It passes into breast milk in very low levels that are not expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Hence it is acceptable for use upon your doctor's recommendation.
General warnings

Major surgery

Metoprolol should be given with caution to patients who are going to have a major surgery done. The dose should be very carefully monitored in such cases both before and after the surgical procedure.

Driving or operating machinery

Metoprolol may cause dizziness and fatigue in some people. Do not drive a vehicle or operate machinery after taking this medicine.

Sports

Athletes are advised not to indulge in certain sports while using Metoprolol. Archery, racing, shooting and other high-risk sports should be avoided. Sportspersons should refer to the list of medicines published by World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) which are not to be taken while participating in certain specific sports events.

Missed Dose

Oral forms: Try not to skip a dose. And if a dose is skipped, do not add it up to the next dose. Injection: This medicine is administered in the hospital or clinical setting by a qualified healthcare professional, the likelihood of a missed dose is very low.

Overdose

Seek emergency medical attention or contact your doctor in case of an overdose.
All drugs interact differently for person to person. You should check all the possible interactions with your doctor before starting any medicine.
Interaction with Alcohol

Description

N/A

Instructions

Avoid drinking alcohol while taking Metoprolol because it can lower the blood pressure drastically.
Interaction with Medicine

Amlodipine

Diltiazem

Aminophylline

Disease interactions

Asthma/ COPD

Use Metoprolol with caution in patients with a respiratory condition such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Metoprolol can cause shortness of breath and also worsens other respiratory symptoms in such patients.

Diabetes

Metoprolol can mask the symptoms of low blood sugar in diabetic patients. Regular monitoring of blood sugar levels is necessary for diabetic patients receiving this medicine.

Liver disease

The primary conversion of Metoprolol to its active form happens in the liver. Therefore patients with liver diseases need special consideration while taking Metoprolol.

Glaucoma

Glaucoma or high eye pressure occurs when the nerve connecting the eye to the brain is damaged. Patients with glaucoma may require dose adjustments while taking Metoprolol.

Hyperlipidaemia

Hyperlipidaemia is a condition of high levels of fat or cholesterol in the blood. Metoprolol can increase the cholesterol levels in the blood. Hence use Metoprolol with caution in patients with hyperlipidaemia.
Food interactions
Using Metoprolol together with multivitamin with minerals may reduce the effectiveness of Metoprolol. Take Metoprolol 2 hours before taking multivitamins with minerals.
Lab interactions
Information not available.
Oral forms: Take the medicine with or without food. Never take more than the prescribed dose. Do not give your medicine to other people even if their condition appears to be the same as yours. Injection: This medicine should be administered by a qualified healthcare professional in a clinic or hospital.
Miscelleneous

Can be taken with or without food, as advised by your doctor

To be taken as instructed by doctor

May cause sleepiness

How it works
Beta receptors, that are found in the heart increases the heart rate and the heart's strength of contraction. Metoprolol blocks beta receptors and as a result, your heart beats more slowly and less forcefully. It also helps to lower the blood pressure and strain on the heart.
Legal Status

Approved

Approved

Approved

Approved

Classification

Category

Cardioselective beta blockers, Beta Blockers

Schedule

Schedule H

Medicines.org.uk. 2021. Betaloc 1 Mg/Ml Solution For Injection - Summary Of Product Characteristics (Smpc) - (Emc). [online] Available at: < [Accessed 13 January 2021].

https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/medicine/152>

Dailymed.nlm.nih.gov. 2021. Dailymed - METOPROLOL- Metoprolol Tartrate Injection, Solution. [online] Available at: < [Accessed 13 January 2021].

https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=be1c686e-37a5-4a53-945b-68a6ead35134>

Medicines.org.uk. 2021. Metoprolol Tartrate Tablets BP 50Mg - Summary Of Product Characteristics (Smpc) - (Emc). [online] Available at: < [Accessed 13 January 2021].

https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/product/5816/smpc>

Drugs, H., 2021. Metoprolol: Medlineplus Drug Information. [online] Medlineplus.gov. Available at: < [Accessed 13 January 2021].

https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a682864.html>

nhs.uk. 2021. Metoprolol: Medicine To Treat High Blood Pressure. [online] Available at: < [Accessed 13 January 2021].

https://www.nhs.uk/medicines/metoprolol/>

Glowm.com. 2021. Metoprolol Succinate. [online] Available at: < [Accessed 13 January 2021].

https://glowm.com/resources/glowm/cd/pages/drugs/m041.html>

Morris, J. and Dunham, A., 2021. Metoprolol. [online] Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Available at: < [Accessed 13 January 2021].

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK532923/>

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Information on this page was last updated on 18 Feb 2021

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