Ciprofloxacin

Description

Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic used for the treatment of bacterial infections that affect the nose, throat, eyes, ears, skin, lungs, or urinary tract. It is effective against a large number of bacteria. It kills or prevents the growth of bacteria in the body. It is not effective against infections caused by viruses. Common side effects of Ciprofloxacin are diarrhoea, stomach pain, headache, weakness, nausea, and vomiting. Ciprofloxacin can cause muscle damage, usually in the ankle. Ciprofloxacin should only be used to treat or prevent infections that are caused by bacteria. Once an antibiotic is started, it is always recommended to finish the entire course of treatment. You can take Ciprofloxacin with or without food. For the ease of remembering, take Ciprofloxacin around the same time every day.

Side effects

Major & minor side effects for Ciprofloxacin

  • Diarrhoea
  • Stomach pain
  • White patches in the mouth or on the tongue
  • Joint pain
  • Black or tarry stools
  • Fever with chills
  • Chest tightness
  • Ringing or buzzing in the ears
  • Muscle pain
  • Numbness of the hands
  • Swelling of face, lips, eyelids, tongue, hands and feet
  • Runny Nose
  • Sneezing

Uses of Ciprofloxacin

What is it prescribed for?

  • Community-Acquired Pneumonia
  • Bronchitis
  • Pyelonephritis
  • Cystitis
  • Prostatitis
  • Gonococcal infection
  • Joint infection
  • Pneumonia with cystic fibrosis
  • Bacterial conjunctivitis
  • Otitis Externa
  • Typhoid fever
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Concerns

Commonly asked questions

  • Onset of action
    You will start to feel better in 2 to 3 days after taking ciprofloxacin. But finish your entire course of treatment, even if the condition gets better.
  • Duration of effect
    The effect of ciprofloxacin lasts for about 8 to 12 hours and then you may have to take your next dose as directed by your doctor/pharmacist.
  • Safe with alcohol?
    Interaction with alcohol is unknown. It is advisable to consult your doctor before consumption.
  • Is it habit forming?
    No habit-forming tendency has been reported for Ciprofloxacin.
  • Usage in pregnancy?
    Ciprofloxacin should be avoided during pregnancy due to the risk of adverse effects on the baby's developing joints. Ciprofloxacin is not known to cause harmful effects on the baby if is taken later in pregnancy. Take this medicine only upon your doctor's recommendation.
  • Usage while breast-feeding?
    Ciprofloxacin is not known to be harmful in breastfeeding women. It passes into breast milk in small amounts. Hence it is acceptable for use in nursing mothers upon your doctor's recommendation. Baby should be observed for symptoms such as diarrhoea and yeast infection.

Allergy

Avoid taking Ciprofloxacin if you are previously allergic to it. Serious allergic reactions to this medicine are rare. However, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any symptoms of allergic reactions such as skin rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, breathing difficulties, etc.

Tendinitis or tendon rupture

Ciprofloxacin can cause muscle damage especially in old age. Do not use Ciprofloxacin if you have tendonitis (swelling of fibres that attach bone with muscles) or tendon rupture (a partial or complete tear of the tendon- the tissue that connects muscle to bone).

Myasthenia gravis

Myasthenia gravis is a skeletal muscle weakness condition characterized by severe weakness of any of the muscles under your voluntary control, including the arms and legs. Ciprofloxacin should be avoided in patients with myasthenia gravis since it may get worsen.
Warnings for special population

Pregnancy

Ciprofloxacin should be avoided during pregnancy due to the risk of adverse effects on the baby's developing joints. Ciprofloxacin is not known to cause harmful effects on the baby if is taken later in pregnancy. Take this medicine only upon your doctor's recommendation.

Breast-feeding

Ciprofloxacin is not known to be harmful in breastfeeding women. It passes into breast milk in small amounts. Hence it is acceptable for use in nursing mothers upon your doctor's recommendation. Baby should be observed for symptoms such as diarrhoea and yeast infection.
General warnings

Muscle damage

Ciprofloxacin can cause muscle damage usually on the tendons that surround the ankle. Inform your doctor if you feel pain, numbness, or tingling sensations in your muscles.

Antibiotic resistance

Finish your entire course of treatment with Ciprofloxacin, even if the condition gets better to avoid antibiotic resistance (the bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics). If you still feel unwell after completing your antibiotic course, make an appointment to consult your doctor.

Kidney diseases

Patients with kidney diseases need special consideration while taking Ciprofloxacin due to the risk of kidney damage. Dose adjustment should be done based on the clinical condition.

Diarrhoea

Ciprofloxacin can cause diarrhoea because it may also kill the helpful bacteria in your stomach or intestine. Get emergency medical help if you experience severe diarrhoea that is watery or bloody. Call your pharmacist/doctor before taking anti-diarrhoeal medication.

Antacids

If you are taking an antacid containing aluminium and magnesium salts for indigestion, it can increase the time it takes for Ciprofloxacin to act on your body. Because of this, it is recommended to take this antibiotic at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after taking antacids.

Missed Dose

Try not to skip a dose of Ciprofloxacin. And if a dose is skipped, do not add it up to the next dose.

Overdose

Seek emergency medical attention in case of an overdose with Ciprofloxacin.
All drugs interact differently for person to person. You should check all the possible interactions with your doctor before starting any medicine.
Interaction with Alcohol

Description

Interaction with alcohol is unknown. It is advisable to consult your doctor before consumption.

Instructions

Interaction with alcohol is unknown. It is advisable to consult your doctor before consumption.
Interaction with Medicine

Escitalopram

Ethinyl Estradiol

Corticosteroids

Quinidine

Aspirin

Disease interactions

Central nervous system disorders

Use Ciprofloxacin with caution in patients with nerve problems, seizures, depression, and psychotic reactions. Ciprofloxacin can trigger these conditions and inform your doctor immediately if these reactions occur.

Gastrointestinal Diseases

Use Ciprofloxacin with extreme caution in patients with gastrointestinal (mouth to anus) diseases, particularly colitis (swelling of the inner lining of the colon), since it may worsen the patient's condition.

QT Prolongation

Ciprofloxacin may cause heart rhythm problem called prolonged QT intervals (an electrical heartbeat disturbance) in some patients who are taking heart medications. It may result in fast, rapid, and irregular heartbeats.
Food interactions
Taking caffeine along with Ciprofloxacin can increase the sleeplessness, nervousness, and anxiety.
Ciprofloxacin will not show its desired effects if consumed with dairy products. At least two hours gap should be maintained between Ciprofloxacin and dairy products.
Avoid using Ciprofloxacin along with multivitamins with minerals. If needed it is suggested to use before 2 to 4 hours of taking multivitamins with minerals or after 4 to 6 hours of taking multivitamins with minerals.
Lab interactions
Information not available.
Ciprofloxacin is used for treating bacterial infections. Oral forms: Take Ciprofloxacin as instructed by the doctor. Never take more than the prescribed dose. Take this medicine at around the same time daily. Do not give your medicine to other people even if their condition appears to be the same as yours. Injection: Ciprofloxacin should be administered by a qualified healthcare professional in a clinic or hospital. Topical forms: Use Ciprofloxacin as directed by the doctor.
Miscelleneous

Can be taken with or without food, as advised by your doctor

To be taken as instructed by doctor

May cause sleepiness

How it works
Ciprofloxacin stops the action of a bacterial enzyme called DNA-gyrase. This helps to kill or prevent the growth of bacteria in the body.
Legal Status

Approved

Approved

Approved

Approved

Classification

Category

Quinolones, Fluoroquinolones, Antibiotics

Schedule

Schedule H

Drugs, H., 2020. Ciprofloxacin: Medlineplus Drug Information. [online] Medlineplus.gov. Available at: < [Accessed 23 December 2020].

https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a688016.html>

Pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. 2020. Ciprofloxacin. [online] Available at: < [Accessed 23 December 2020].

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Ciprofloxacin>

Thai, T., Salisbury, B. and Zito, P., 2020. Ciprofloxacin. [online] Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Available at: < [Accessed 23 December 2020].

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK535454/>

Stewart, M., 2020. Ciprofloxacin For Infection (Ciproxin). Side Effects And Dosage. [online] Patient.info. Available at: <o/medicine/ciprofloxacin-for-infection-ciproxin> [Accessed 23 December 2020].

https://patient.inf

Accessdata.fda.gov. 2020. [online] Available at: < [Accessed 23 December 2020].

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2016/019537s086lbl.pdf>

Medicines.org.uk. 2020. Ciprofloxacin 500 Mg Film-Coated Tablets - Summary Of Product Characteristics (Smpc) - (Emc). [online] Available at: < [Accessed 28 December 2020].

https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/product/3484/smpc>

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Information on this page was last updated on 4 Feb 2021

Disclaimer

We’ve made all possible efforts to ensure that the information provided here is accurate, up-to-date and complete, however, it should not be treated as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Practo only provides reference source for common information on medicines and does not guarantee its accuracy or exhaustiveness. The absence of a warning for any drug or combination thereof, should not be assumed to indicate that the drug or combination is safe, effective, or appropriate for any given patient. Practo does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information provided above. If you have any doubts about your medication then we strongly recommend that you consult with your doctor, nurse or healthcare provider. See detailed T&C here.