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1. What are the early sign of typhoid?
Typhoid starts with fever, abdominal pain, loss of appetite and a general feeling of being unwell. There be diarrhoea or constipation too, and a rash that begins from the face and spreads all over the body.
2. What are the risk factors of typhoid?
Risk factors include:
Travelling to areas where typhoid is endemic
Living in poor sanitary conditions
Poor hygiene habits
Proximity to insects like flies
Contact with someone who recently suffered from typhoid fever
Diseases such as AIDS that lower immunity
Being a healthcare worked which increases the risk of your exposure to Salmonella typhi bacteria.
3. How can typhoid be prevented?
Typhoid can be prevented partially with vaccination, by maintaining good hygiene and eating clean food made hygienically. Avoid eating raw uncooked food, roadside food while travelling in areas having past episodes of typhoid. You must drink boiled water and wash your hands every time after visiting the washroom and before touching food, or eating.
4. What are the symptoms of typhoid and how do I differentiate it from food poisoning?
A patient with typhoid will have high fever, severe stomach pain, constipation followed by loose motions, generalised weakness, vomiting, fever with chills, loss of appetite, generalised muscle weakness, and small spots on the abdomen. If left untreated, it can also cause hallucinations. In food poisoning, fever may or may not be present, muscle weakness, and headaches are generally not present.
5. Are there any new vaccines available for typhoid?
Typhoid can be cured with vaccination to a certain extent. Certain new vaccines TYpba (TCV) and TY21a can be given before two years of age.