1. What is spondylosis?
Spondylosis is a disorder caused by deteriorating intervertebral discs and degenerative changes in the spinal column, such as bone spurs. It usually affects the cervical (neck), thoracic (upper and mid-back), or lumbar (lower back) parts of the spine. It may lead to loss of normal function and shape of the spine.
2. What are the types of spondylosis?
The different types of spondylosis are based on the spinal region that they affect, which are:
Cervical spondylosis - affects the neck
Thoracic spondylosis - affects the upper and middle back
Lumbar spondylosis - affects the lower back
Lumbosacral spondylosis - affects the lower back and sacral (bottom) region of the spine
Multilevel spondylosis - affects more than one region of the spine
3. What are the causes of spondylosis?
The causes of spondylosis include ageing, osteoporosis, bone spurs, dehydration of intervertebral discs, poor posture, genetics, spinal injury, lack of active lifestyle, and doing repeated weight-bearing movements involving the spine.
4. How is spondylosis diagnosed?
If there is pain and stiffness in the region, your doctor may suspect spondylosis. Other tests to confirm the diagnosis include:
Physical examination by your doctor to check the range of motion, test the reflexes, and assess the strength as well as sensation of the limbs.
Imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scan, MRI scan, electromyogram (EMG) and nerve conduction study and may also be done.
5. What are the symptoms of spondylosis?
The symptoms of spondylosis include:
Tingling or numbness sensation in the hands and legs
Loss of balance
Difficulty in coordination
Loss of bladder or bowel function
Popping or grinding sensation when the spine moves