Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: Symptoms, Complications, and Treatment

What is diabetes mellitus type 2?

Diabetes type 2 is the most common form of diabetes mellitus in the world. Insulin resistance by the body is the regularly observed cause of diabetes type 2.
However, there is also another uncommon factor which causes diabetes type 2, that is, the body simply does not produce enough insulin.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that allows your body to use glucose (a type of sugar found in many carbohydrates) for energy. Insulin also helps to balance your blood glucose or blood sugar levels, by preventing it from getting too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia).


Following are the normal and diabetic blood sugar levels:

Please Note: If your glucose levels are below 50 mg/dL or above 200 mg/dL you need to be admitted to the emergency room without delay.

How does diabetes type 2 occur?

The primary cause of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 is that the pancreas may produce enough insulin to transport sugar into the cells, however, the body refuses to use the insulin.

Insulin helps to unlock the cells of the body to allow the sugar (glucose) to enter them, so that the glucose is transformed into energy.

If there is more sugar in the body than is required, the insulin helps to store the sugar in the liver and releases it when the blood sugar level is low, or when the body needs more sugar, such as in between meals or during vigorous physical activity. Therefore, insulin helps to balance out the blood sugar level and keep it in a normal range. As blood sugar level increases, the pancreas secrete more insulin.

In diabetes type 2 since the body refuses to use the insulin produced, the insulin is unable to let the sugar enter the cells and transform to energy. The sugar level keeps increasing in the blood, and overtime hurts the eyes, heart, kidneys and nerves.

he insulin is not able to let the sugar enter the cells and transform to energy. The sugar keeps increasing in the blood, and overtimehurts the eyes, heart, kidneys and nerves.

A secondary reason for diabetes mellitus type 2 is insufficient insulin production by the pancreas. A study done by a team of researchers at the Newcastle University, shows that this occurs due to fat accumulation in the pancreas.
When the insulin production is not enough, blood sugar levels rise in the body causing diabetes mellitus type 2.

Who is prone to diabetes type 2?

You may be prone to diabetes type 2 if:

 

  • you have family history of diabetes

  • you have prediabetes or a high blood sugar level which has not yet turned to full fledged diabetes. It can be stopped if you exercise and reduce excess weight

  • you lead a sedentary lifestyle

  • you have high blood pressure/hypertension

  • you have heart disease

  • you are overweight

  • you are 45 years and above, as with age the risk of getting diabetes grows

  • you are a woman with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

What are the symptoms of diabetes type 2? How is diabetes type 2 diagnosed?

The symptoms of diabetes type 2 include:

  • excessive urination

  • excessive thirst

  • dry mouth

  • sudden weight loss

  • fatigue

  • headaches

  • increased hunger

  • blurry vision

  • slow healing wounds

  • loss of consciousness

  • Impotency

  • itching skin

  • slow healing wounds

  • frequent yeast infections if you are a woman

Diagnosis

Diagnosis of  diabetes type 2 usually includes one or more blood tests.


The doctor will advise you to undergo a Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This test indicates your blood sugar levels for the past two to three months.

This test measures the percentage of hemoglobin — an oxygen-transporting protein in red blood cells — to which the blood sugar is attached. A high percentage of haemoglobin (6.5 % or higher) indicates diabetes.

After this test, the doctor will ask you to undergo an autoantibody test which checks for antibodies that attack the pancreatic cells. This test accurately diagnoses whether it is Diabetes Type 1 or Type 2.

The doctor may also ask you to undergo a Random Blood Sugar Test, a Fasting Blood Sugar Test, and Oral glucose tolerance test.

What are the complications of diabetes type 2?

The complications of  diabetes type 2 include:

  • heart palpitations

  • excessive sweating

  • slurred speech

  • whiteness of skin

  • confusion

  • headache

  • anxiety

  • numbness in fingers, toes, and lips

  • drowsiness

More severe complications of  diabetes type 2 include:

  • diabetic retinopathy or eye disorders

  • nephropathy or  kidney disease

  • diabetic neuropathy or nerve disorders

  • macrovascular problems or heart problems due to damaged blood vessels

What is the treatment of diabetes type 2?

Exercise

If you have diabetes mellitus type 2, you have too much glucose in your blood. Exercising will help you bring your blood glucose levels under control. It helps the muscles to use up the glucose, without the insulin, which brings down the levels of sugar in the blood.
An additional benefit is that, the exercising will keep your heart healthy, which is important because people with diabetes are at a high risk of suffering from cardiovascular diseases, due to blocked arteries.

Warning: To avoid any serious risk to your health, please consult your doctor before starting a new exercise regimen. You may need to change your diet, and the dosage of insulin, or of other medicines before you start exercising.

Medical Treatment

For managing the symptoms of  Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 the doctor often prescribes a good diet and proper exercise.

Sometimes though, only lifestyle changes are not enough. You may have to undergo treatments which include oral drugs and injectables. Please consult your physician for the appropriate treatment course.

Would you like to consult a doctor for Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 ?

Patient Experiences

Shivakumar S
Excellent Diabetes Type 2 Treatment
Excellent treatment and sugar levels r come don drastically from 15•1 to 5.8 average and The Doctor has advised a excellent precscrtion and diet control which given a good results ... Read More
Doctor in this story :Dr. Narendra BS
Sattva Super Speciality Centre, Bangalore
Ram Kumar Sharma
Diabetes Management
Dr Anirban Biswas is a great doctor. Controlled my blood sugar levels from 350 to 136 within a month. Other doctors prescribed me insulin, but he controlled my sugar only with medi... Read More
Doctor in this story :Dr. Anirban Biswas
Biswas Heart And Mind Clinic, Delhi
Malini Shankar
Diet Change Goes A Long Way To Help Manage Diabetes Type 2
I am Malini Shankar, am a photojournalist, in a very stressful profession. Despite being disciplined with yoga, diet, medication and doctor's consultation, my blood glucose level w... Read More
Doctor in this story :Dr. Balaji Jaganmohan
Apollo Sugar Clinic, Bangalore

Questions answered by trusted doctors

Verified User

I am diagnosed three months prior and found type 2 diabetes. So I want to know is it curable or not?

Dr. Swapna Reddy
Diabetologist, Chennai
Hi, Type 2DM can be controlled and complications can b prevented with good sugar control. be on Diet control, regular walking and regular follow up with ur doctor
Verified User

My sister was diagonised to have type 2 diabetes. She had stomach pain and we had recently measured her 3 months diabetic profile which was 9.6. We were informed by our doctor that she should be using insulin to control diabetes.. she s 13 years and arrogant in behaviour so we are unable to give her insulin injection. Is there an alternate way for insulin intake? Also she is obese and her scan reports say that she has fatty liver. Kindly advise.

Dr. Chinmay das
Yoga and Naturopathy, Bangalore
best medicine for type 2 diabetes is 5 ml edible coconut oil daily. it supplies kitone to brain which is an alternate source of energy for brain. avoid sweet. take more vegetable and less grains. regular walk, kapal vati pranayama and abdominal excercise like leg rotation chakki chalana and shakti bandha series required. laghu sankha prakkyalana recommended
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Did you know?

India, the diabetes capital of the world

India holds the record of being the diabetes capital of the world. Over 30 million people have now been diagnosed with diabetes in India. Half of them are women.

Diabetes cases are higher in south india

Cases of diabetes are higher in the four South Indian states of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala.

Children are highly affected too

Around 40000 children under the age of 15 years have been diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes and this figure is growing by 5% each year. No regular exercise, obesity and a family history of Diabetes are the main causes.

The risk increases with age

There is a 100% rise in cases of Diabetes Type 2 among people between 20 years - 40 years.

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Home remedies for Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Take a Mix of Ground Bay Leaves, Turmeric & Aloe Vera Gel

Mix together half a teaspoon of ground bay leaves, turmeric and one tablespoon of aloe vera gel. Consume it twice daily, before lunch and dinner. It will regulate your blood sugar levels.

Drink Bitter Gourd Juice

Drinking a glass of bitter gourd juice on empty stomach every morning for two months helps increase insulin secretion. You can also include cooked bitter gourd into your diet.

Drink Jamun Juice

Drinking a glass of Jamun or Indian blackberry juice helps in controlling the blood sugar levels. Also crush the seeds while making the juice as the seeds contain glycoside jamboline and alkaloid jambosine that regulate control blood sugar levels.

Drink Neem Juice

Crush the tender shoots of neem leaves and drink the juice in an empty stomach. It will help reduce your sugar levels and thus your lessen your insulin dependancy.

Drink Tulsi Juice

Consume one tablespoon of tulsi juice on empty stomach to bring your blood sugar to normal levels everyday.

Drink Wheatgrass Juice

Put a bunch of wheatgrass in a regular kitchen blender. Add around two tbsp water and churn it all. Pour it all out on a strainer and press on it till the juice is strained out and only the pulp remains on the strainer. Drink the juice. Wheatgrass juice is said to normalize blood sugar. A word of warning though, if the first time you feel nauseous after drinking wheatgrass, you may want to lessen the quantity or stop drinking it altogether.
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