Angioplasty Overview: Meaning, Procedure, & Risks


Contents

In this article we will look at:

You can click on any of the links above to navigate to the section of your interest.


Angioplasty Overview

Angioplasty is a non-surgical procedure, which opens blocked coronary arteries and restores blood flow to the heart. 

The heart is a muscular organ at the centre of the circulatory system that contracts and relaxes rhythmically to pump blood into different blood vessels, which carries it to the different parts of the body. 

The coronary arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart.
If any of the coronary arteries become narrow or blocked, due to cholesterol buildup and fatty deposits (plaque), the blood flow to that part of the heart becomes slow or gets blocked as a result. The plaque accumulates over time and the arteries harden. The hardened arteries are unable to expand to their fullest capacity, thereby reducing the flow of oxygen and blood supply to parts of the heart. 

When a particular part of the heart does not receive enough oxygen or blood, tissue damage or death may occur in that part, unless the blockage is quickly removed. This can result in a condition called Coronary Atherosclerosis or in simpler terms, clogged arteries, which can lead to chest pain (also known as angina), or even a stroke, or a heart attack. 

The signs and symptoms of Coronary Atherosclerosis include :


  • severe chest pain, which gets worse with emotional stress or vigorous physical activity
  • sensation much like an elephant sitting on the chest
  • irregular heart palpitations
  • shortness of breath
  • nausea
  • dizziness
  • weakness

The factors which can put people at a risk of developing Coronary Atherosclerosis include:

  • leading a sedentary lifestyle
  • excessive smoking and drinking (almost 40% of the heart patients in India are chain-smokers)
  • diabetes
  • high levels of cholesterol
  • an unhealthy diet
  • prolonged high blood pressure/low blood pressure
  • depression

This condition can be corrected with the help of an angioplasty procedure. 

Depending on the size of the blockage, the type of angioplasty, and the patient’s medical condition, the duration of the procedure may vary from 30 mins to 3 hours.  The cost of the procedure can range anywhere between Rs. 1,00,000 to Rs. 3,60,000 in India.

Usually, local anesthesia is used for the angioplasty, however, some cases require general anesthesia. Patients who are administered general anesthesia may require hospitalization for 2 days or less. Patients who tolerate the procedure well generally do not need to stay overnight in the hospital.

What kind of a doctor should I consult if I suffer from heart-related symptoms?

If you experience any of the aforementioned symptoms of coronary atherosclerosis or any other heart-related symptoms, you should immediately consult your family doctor or a general physician. The general physician, in turn, will refer you to a cardiologist. 

Cardiologists are the doctors who specialize in diagnosing and treating heart-related conditions and heart diseases.

Before the procedure, the cardiologist will review your medical history in detail to find out the risks involved, if any. If the tests performed confirm the diagnosis of coronary atherosclerosis you will be suggested to undergo the angioplasty procedure.

The angioplasty procedure is performed in a cardiac catheterization laboratory (cath lab) in a hospital. 

How is Coronary Atherosclerosis diagnosed? 


Coronary Atherosclerosis or clogged arteries can be diagnosed using several methods such as:

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG): A tool which measures and records the electrical impulses of the heart and displays how fast or irregular the heartbeat is.
  • Echocardiography: A scan performed utilizing sound waves to create moving images of the heart and shows how the heart is working.
  • Angiography: An imaging technique which uses a dye and x-rays to reveal blocked arteries.
  • Multislice Coronary Computed Tomography Scan (CT Scan): A scan which shows computer-generated pictures of the narrowed and hardened arteries.

What are the different types of angioplasty?


There are different forms of angioplasty.  The type of angioplasty the cardiologist chooses to perform varies according to the following factors:

  • the location of the block/plaque in the heart
  • the shape of the block (plaque)
  • whether the plaque responsible for the clogging of the artery is hard or soft

Depending on the factors mentioned above, the cardiologist may recommend any of the following types of angioplasty:

What is the cost of the different types of angioplasty in India? 


Depending on the patient’s condition and the hospital amenities, the cost of each type of angioplasty can range between Rs. 1,00,000 to Rs. 3,60,000.

What is the time taken to perform each type of angioplasty? 


Depending on the patient’s condition and requirement, a cardiologist can take anywhere between 30 minutes to 3 hours to perform each type of angioplasty.

How much time does it take to recover from each type of angioplasty?


In general, patients are able to walk around within a few hours after undergoing the angioplasty procedure, depending on how the procedure went and where the catheter was placed.

Complete recovery takes about 5 - 7 days. 


More Cardiology Related Topics

Angioplasty Overview: Meaning, Procedure, & Risks

Related Topic 

Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)

References

1. Grundfest, W., Litvack, F., Hickey, A., Doyle, L., Glick, D., Lee, M., Chaux, A., Treiman, R., Cohen, L., Foran, R., Levin, P., Cosman, D., Carroll, R., Morgenstern, L. and Forrester, J. (2018). [online] The current status of angioscopy and laser angioplasty.[online] Available http://www.jvascsurg.org/article/0741-5214(87)90251-5/fulltext [Accessed 22 Feb. 2018].

2. Hueb W, Soares P, Almeida de Oliveira S et al. Five-Year Follow-Up of the Medicine, Angioplasty, or Surgery Study (MASS): A Prospective, Randomized Trial of Medical Therapy, Balloon Angioplasty, or Bypass Surgery for Single Proximal Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery Stenosis. 2018. Available at: http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/100/suppl_2/II-107. Accessed February 26, 2018.

3. Aoki T, Sugimura K, Tatebe S et al. Comprehensive evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of balloon pulmonary angioplasty for inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: long-term effects and procedure-related complications. 2018. Available at: https://academic.oup.com/eurheartj/article-abstract/38/42/3152/4209323. Accessed February 26, 2018.

Would you like to consult a doctor for Angioplasty Overview ?

Questions answered by trusted doctors

Verified User
What is the situation right now according to the report attached with this question? Should he go for angioplasty right now?
Dr. Ganesh Nallur Shivu
Interventional Cardiologist, Bangalore
The report mentions that you had an angioplasty last year. Now the stent has developed blockage again in a years time. Do you know what type of stent was inserted the first time.  if it was a good quality drug eluting stent, then no point in going for angioplasty again as this soon reblock.  You should consider by pass surgery. if the stent last time was not a good quality drug eluting stent, then you can consider angioplasty but definitely with the best drug eluting stent.
Verified User
Can angioplasty be carried on a diabetic patient? Having long segment 80-90% lesion in LCx?
Dr. Sandeep J Kadam
Cardiologist, Pune
See it depends on size of vessel, length of lesion. And dominant circulation .. rt?Lt?. diabetes per say not contraindiction for Angioplasty.
After review of it angio report I can guide you.email me it angio video z.

Dr.Sandeep J. Kadam
Interventional Cardiologist
Pune.

Dr. Anand Chopda
General Physician, Bangalore
Need to know more about your complaints and problem  so that i can guide  help you.

       If you have any quries regarding your health or your family , you can opt for direct consult to chat and consult with me Dr. Anand Chopda

Verified User
Had angioplasty 2 years ago I feel minor pain Very minor in left side of chest No everytime but i feel sometime in a day.! Is there any problem?
Dr. Paramjeet Singh
Cardiologist, Ghaziabad
Having a pain, heaviness or discomfort in & around your chest can be scary. It does not always mean that you are having a heart attack. There can be many other causes, including

Other heart problems, such as angina
Panic attacks
Digestive problems, such as heartburn or esophagus disorders
Sore muscles
Lung diseases, such as pneumonia, pleurisy, or pulmonary embolism
Costochondritis - an inflammation of joints in your chest

Some of these problems can be serious. Get immediate medical care if you have chest pain that does not go away, crushing pain or pressure in the chest, or chest pain along with nausea, sweating, dizziness or shortness of breath. Treatment depends on the cause of the pain.

To rule out cardiac issues. Get a ECG and 2D echocardiography done. If they are normal then get a TMT / stress echo done.. If they are also normal then you have nothing to worry from heart side

Meanwhile take

Tab. Flexon Mr twice a day for 5 days

Cap. Pantocid DSR 40 mg before meals twice a day for 5

Get back to me with the reports for a detailed consultation.  

Watch these simple explanatory videos for underlying the problem. Copy the link address to your browser

1) Chest pain - must know
https://youtu.be/xZunqXM3G1Y

2) Heart failure
https://youtu.be/rgN3ez7CkHc
https://youtu.be/j2LlMRwoX94

3) Three things to do in chest pain -
https://youtu.be/v7glVnwnLDg

4) Difference between heart attack and heart blocks vs heart failure
https://youtu.be/X5FDPT2bY3I

Don't forget to share and subscribe the channel - Dr. EDUCATION.

Please do share your feedback on the below link. Your opinion is valuable.

http://prac.to/idax

Regards
Dr. Paramjeet Singh
MBBS, DIP. CARDIOLOGY (LONDON), FICC.
CONSULTANT CARDIOLOGIST
YASHODA SUPERSPECIALITY HOSPITAL

Dr. Deepak Saha
Cardiologist, Hyderabad
Hope you are doing your regular exercise/walking. Is the pain occur durin exercise
Ask health queries and get free answers from doctors in 24 hrs

Did you know?

It's possible to experience no symptoms even with multiple blockages

It’s possible to have significant coronary artery disease (CAD) with multiple blockages greater than 70% and yet experience no symptoms of angina on exertion. This is called a silent heart attack. In most of the cases this can happen to people who lead a very sedentary lifestyle.

Angioplasty is not generally recommended for blockages below 70%

Angioplasty is not generally recommended for blockages below 70%. There is no proven benefit in implanting a stent in an area of blockage that does not impair blood flow to the heart muscle. These blockages require only medications and lifestyle changes to be treated successfully.

There is no cure for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

There is no cure for the chronic condition called coronary artery disease (CAD). Once plaque builds up in your arteries, it is very difficult to get rid of it. Embracing a healthy and active lifestyle can help control and manage CAD, in other words stopping the disease from progressing.

Related videos

Related articles

Balloon Angioplasty: Procedure, Cost, and Complications

Balloon angioplasty is a minimally invasive procedure to open narrowed coronary arteries to restore proper blood flow to the heart. Know more about balloon angioplasty, side effects, cost, recovery, other useful facts and links on Procedure-Wiki | Practo

Acidity: Symptoms, Treatment, and Home Remedies

Acidity or acid reflux is a condition affecting many Indians, it is characterized by heartburn felt around the lower chest area. Know more about Acidity, its causes, symptoms, treatment and other useful facts, links and videos on Health-Wiki | Practo

Laser Angioplasty: Procedure, Cost, and Complications

Laser angioplasty is a procedure to open coronary arteries narrowed by plaque. Know more about laser angioplasty, the procedure, side effects, cost, recovery, other useful facts and links on Procedure-Wiki | Practo.

Book an appointment with a Cardiologist