Measles: Symptoms, Complications, and Treatment

What is measles ?

Measles also known as Rubeola or Morbilli is an infection caused by the Rubeola virus. It is a highly contagious viral infection affecting the respiratory system. A person can get infected if he comes into contact with infected saliva or mucus.

When a person suffering from measles, coughs or sneezes, he releases the germs into the air. The germs lie active for many hours on various surfaces and infect people who come into contact.

This disease usually affects children the most, though it can also affect adults. It can be prevented however, through vaccination.

If you observe any measles related symptoms, or if you feel you have been exposed to someone who has measles, you need to contact your family physician or a general physician immediately. In the case of an exposure to an infected person, the doctor may advise you to take an MMR vaccine, also called immune globulin, which will reduce the risk of your developing measles. The doctor may then  monitor you for a few days for any signs and symptoms of measles.

If you develop measles you will be advised by the doctor not to mingle with people for fear of the infection spreading.

It is also advisable to let your doctor know in advance that you are coming for consultation for suspected measles, so that the doctor can take adequate precautions against the spread of infection.

How does measles occur?

You can get infected with measles if :

  • you come into physical contact with an infected person

  • you touch any surface which contains the germs and then touch touch your mouth, nose or eye

  • you are around any infected person who coughs or sneezes

As soon as the virus enters your body it starts multiplying in your throat, lungs, the lymphatic system, urinary tract, eyes, blood vessels and the central nervous system. According to experts the measles virus takes 1- 3 weeks to establish itself in the human body. For the symptoms of measles to appear, it will take approximately 10-12 days after the exposure.

The very first symptom that you will experience is fever. Two to three days after the fever, a reddish brown spotty rash will gradually appear behind your ears and spread across your head, forehead, and the rest of the body. The spots may gradually join together to form large dark blotchy patches. The rash is a classic measles symptom.

This spotty rash can last for over a week.
Small grayish-white spots with bluish-white centers may appear inside your mouth, inside your cheeks, and throat. These spots are known as Koplik’s spots.

During this period, if any person who has not been vaccinated, comes in contact with you, especially your bodily fluids, the person will be immediately infected.

 

Measles can be prevented through vaccination. However, the measles vaccine is not recommended for the following people

  • pregnant women 
  • people with impaired immune systems.
  • people suffering from fatal  illnesses, such as leukemia.
  • people who are allergic to ingredients in the vaccine such as neomycin
  • people who have recently received immunoglobulin (IG), blood, or plasma
  • people suffering from active and untreated tuberculosis

After suffering from measles once, a person develops immunity to it. There are however, rare cases of measles occurring a second time in some people.

Who is prone to measles?

  • The first vaccine for measles is given to babies who are 12 months old. Thus, children who are younger than 12 months old are at a high risk of contracting measles. The vaccine is given at 12 months of age because most of the mothers would have already suffered from the disease earlier, and during pregnancy pass on certain passive anti bodies to their babies, which protect the baby during the first year and renders the vaccine inoperative.


  • People suffering from chronic illnesses and auto-immune diseases are at the high risk of getting infected with measles. For these people, measles can become potentially life-threatening.

  • Children who have not been vaccinated and are over 5 years old are highly susceptible to measles, but are less likely to develop any serious complications.

  • People with a deficiency of vitamin A are at a high risk of developing measles.

  • Adults over 20 years who have not been inoculated may contract the disease and are likely to develop serious complications

What are the symptoms of measles? How is it diagnosed?

You can be sure you have contracted measles if you observe these symptoms:

  • high fever (105F) which rises and drops intermittently, and continues for a number of days.

  • constantly watering and inflamed eyes

  • dry cough

  • running nose

  • sneezing intermittently

  • conjunctivitis

  • a reddish-brown spotty rash which appears three to four days after the initial symptoms and spreads across the body. The rash can last over a week.

  • small grayish-white spots with bluish-white centers may appear inside the mouth, cheeks, and throat. These spots are known as Koplik’s spots.

  • body ache

Diagnosis

Usually a general physician easily diagnoses measles by gauging the symptoms.

He may advise you to undertake a blood test to confirm that the Rubeola virus is in your bloodstream.

What are the complications of measles?

Babies suffering from measles who are not yet 12 months old, are at a high risk of experiencing measles related complications such as:

  • otitis ( inner ear infection or inflammation)

  • pneumonia

  • seizures  

  • encephalitis

In general measles related complications include:

  • laryngitis ( or inflammation of the voice box)

  • bronchitis ( or inflammation of the inner walls of the air passages)

  • respiratory problems

  • otitis ( inner ear infection or inflammation)

  • febrile convulsions ( or fits caused by fever)

  • Pneumonia

  • conjunctivitis

Some rare complications that may occur in people with low immunity are:

  • hepatitis

  • reduced blood platelet count

  • neuritis ( infected optic nerve leading to blindness)

  • heart related complications

  • nervous system complications

  • brain disease

What is the treatment for measles?

Medical Treatments

People who have not been vaccinated for measles but who have been exposed to the virus can be given the measles vaccination within 72 hours of exposure which will provide protection against the disease.

Incase of a full fledged measles infection the doctor may prescribe fever reducers. Antibiotics cannot kill the measles virus, but can be prescribed by the doctor, along with vitamins, to prevent or reduce secondary complications. The doctor may also prescribe Vitamin A, as Vitamin A deficiency puts a person at the risk of contracting measles.

It will take as long as three weeks to recover from a bout of measles.

Would you like to consult a doctor for Measles ?

Patient Experiences

Ravi Prakash
Measles Cured Within A Week
I and my wife were under consultation of Dr. Mitra for the treatment of fever, measles, skin irritation and itching.We were very confused before reaching him on practo... but after... Read More
Doctor in this story :Dr. Suman Mitra
Dr. Mitra's Chamber Lake Gardens, Kolkata
Verified Patient
Measles
First I was worried of scars by measles. After taking homeopathy medicines my eruption fully cleared than usual . Thanks to Dr nirmal for giving me speedy recovery. Only minimal s... Read More
Doctor in this story :Dr. G Nirmal
Niveena Homoeo Clinic, Chennai

Questions answered by trusted doctors

Verified User

My little one is 9 month old and he born on Oct 28,2015. Is it Fine to put measles vaccination after July 15? At present he is suffering from cough and cold.

Dr. Manoj Kumar Singh
Pediatrician, Lucknow
Earliest age for measles vaccine is 270 days. It shouldn't be given before 28 July 16.Now MMR is given instead of measles alone
Verified User

My mother is suffering from Measles from past 4-5 days. It occurs on all her body and she unable to eat anything. She has fever and body pain too. One of the local general physician ask her to rest properly. But we are not noticing any sign of improvement. Please let me know the treatment.

Dr. Manaswini Mullapudi
Hi, there is no SPECIFIC treatment for measles, as it is mostly self limiting, which means it will slowly resolve by itself.. It will usually take a week or so to get back to normal.. Don't worry. However, do look out for warning signs like increase in the cough or increase in fever from before and immediately consult a doctor if the condition is getting worse. The treatment involves managing the symptoms like fever and weakness.. And proper rest. Give your mother plenty of fluids, especially water. It is absolutely vital to keep her hydrated throughout the healing process. Wait for 2 more days and if the condition doesn't improve then consult your doctor again.
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Specialists for Measles

Did you know?

One third of measles related deaths worldwide occur in India

More than one third of all measles deaths worldwide (around 56 000 in 2011) are among children in India.

Children below six years most susceptible

Children between the age of one to six years old are most susceptible to measles

Hearing loss can result from measles

In one out of every 10 children suffering from measles ear infections can occur which can result in hearing loss.

Vaccination aiding the prevention of measles

There was a 79 % drop in measles related deaths between 2000 and 2015 worldwide due to large scale measles vaccination.

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Home remedies for Measles

Apply Neem Paste

Grind a handful of fresh neem leaves and apply the paste to all the affected areas on the skin. Neem leaves have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that kills the virus that causes measles. Let it completely dry on your skin before you wash it off with lukewarm water.

Apply Olive Leaf Paste

The paste of Olive leaves is also a highly effective natural treatment for measles. Like neem leaves olive leaves too have antiviral properties which kills the measles virus. Grind fresh olive leaves into a paste and apply it on the affected skin. Leave it for half an hour to 45 minutes and then rinse with lukewarm water.

Take Turmeric Powder

Add one tablespoon of turmeric powder along with a little honey to a glass of milk. Drink this preparation daily for a month. Turmeric has antiseptic and antiviral properties which can help reduce the symptoms of measles.

Keep Yourself Well Hydrated

During measles you lose a lot of bodily fluids, therefore it is highly necessary to keep yourself well hydrated by drinking plenty of water. You can also drink plenty of coconut water. It is highly rich in nutrients.

Take Indian Gooseberry (Amla) Juice

Amla is a very rich source of vitamin C which helps build up the immune system of the body. Mix one teaspoon of Amla juice in half a cup of water. Drink this mix twice daily for a month when you suffer from measles.

Drink Orange Juice

Orange juice is another rich source of Vitamin C. This citrus fruit will help to restore your appetite when you suffer from measles, and also reduce the risk of dehydration.