Sperm antibodies ELISA semen test is used to detect the presence of antibodies against a man's sperm in the semen. This test helps to determine infertility issues in males.
Sperm is a male cell that helps in sexual reproduction. It is produced in the male reproductive gland called testicles. A sperm after fusion with egg cell (female reproductive cell) helps in the development of a new organism. The normal sperm count is 40 million to 300 million and counts less than 10 million are considered as low sperm count. An ejaculate called semen is a liquid that contains sperm. Semen is a whitish liquid secreted by the male sexual glands and act as an environment hospitable to the sperm.
Antibodies are proteins produced by our immune system to fight against foreign substances such as bacterias and viruses. Sperm antibodies occur when the immune system mistakenly targets sperm or when the body becomes sensitized to it. These antibodies are formed when there is direct contact between the man’s blood and sperm. Normally, a cellular structure in the testes called the blood/testis barrier prevents the entry of sperm into the blood. Sertoli cells are cells present in this barrier and are very closely arranged forming a tight junction that prevents contact between sperm cells from the blood. Any injury or infection to this barrier leads to leakage of sperm into the blood. This result in an immunologic attack or formation of antibodies against the sperms in the blood.
Sperm antibodies produced are Immunoglobulin G (IgG), Immunoglobulin A (IgA) and Immunoglobulin M (IgM). These sperm antibodies first form in the blood and eventually reaches semen. They kill or injure the sperm cells present in the semen. This decreases the chances for a sperm to fertilize an egg (female reproductive cell) can lead to infertility issues in males. An infection in the prostate or an injury to the testicles may result in the formation of these antibodies.
This test is performed in males to detect the presence of sperm antibodies in the semen. Your doctor may ask to perform this test when you have a fertility problem or if your partner is having trouble becoming pregnant. This test is also recommended when other male fertility tests are not clear. However, in case of a positive result, your doctor may ask to perform a few more additional tests to determine the exact cause for the presence of sperm antibodies in the semen.
Inform your doctor if you are on any medications, have any allergies or underlying medical conditions before your Sperm Antibodies Elisa Semen. Your doctor will give specific instructions depending on your condition on how to prepare for Sperm Antibodies Elisa Semen.
No specific preparation is required for this test. However, follow all the instructions given by your healthcare provider.
The test results may vary depending on gender, age, health conditions, and other factors.
If the test result is positive this may indicate the presence of sperm antibodies in the semen which can be due to an infection in the prostate or an injury to the testicles. The presence of these sperm antibodies in the semen can be the reason for the infertility issues.
If the test result is negative this may indicate that no sperm antibodies are detected in the semen.
Based on the test results, your doctor may advise appropriate medical treatments or further diagnostic tests.
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