Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited disorder in which clusters of cysts develop primarily within your kidneys, causing your kidneys to enlarge and lose function over time. Cysts are noncancerous round sacs containing fluid. The cysts vary in size, and they can grow very large. Having many cysts or large cysts can damage your kidneys.
Polycystic kidney disease symptoms :
- High blood pressure
- Back or side painHeadacheA feeling of fullness in your abdomen
- Increased size of your abdomen due to enlarged kidneys
- Blood in your urineKidney stones
- Kidney failureUrinary tract or kidney infections
Abnormal genes cause polycystic kidney disease, which means that in most cases, the disease runs in families. Rarely, a genetic mutation occurs on its own (spontaneous), so that neither parent has a copy of the mutated gene.
The two main types of polycystic kidney disease, caused by different genetic flaws, are:
- Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Signs and symptoms of ADPKD often develop between the ages of 30 and 40. In the past, this type was called adult polycystic kidney disease, but children can develop the disorder. Only one parent needs to have the disease for it to pass to the children. If one parent has ADPKD, each child has a 50 percent chance of getting the disease. This form accounts for about 90 percent of cases of polycystic kidney disease.
- Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). This type is far less common than is ADPKD. The signs and symptoms often appear shortly after birth. Sometimes, symptoms don't appear until later in childhood or during adolescence. Both parents must have abnormal genes to pass on this form of the disease. If both parents carry a gene for this disorder, each child has a 25 per cent chance of getting the disease
For polycystic kidney disease, certain tests can detect the size and number of kidney cysts you have and evaluate the amount of healthy kidney tissue, including:
- Ultrasound. During an ultrasound, a wand-like device called a transducer is placed on your body. It emits sound waves that are reflected back to the transducer — like sonar. A computer translates the reflected sound waves into images of your kidneys.
- CT scan. As you lie on a movable table, you're guided into a big, doughnut-shaped device that projects thin X-ray beams through your body. Your doctor is able to see cross-sectional images of your kidneys.MRI scan. As you lie inside a large cylinder, magnetic fields and radio waves generate cross-sectional views of your kidneys
Tips for a healthy diet:
- High fibre: Include fresh vegetables and nuts, whole grains, legumes, fruits.
- Carbohydrates: Minimize intake of bread and pasta.