Articles on strain

Repititive Strain Injury - Are You Always in Pain?

Dr. A Mohan Krishna, Orthopedist
Repetitive strain injury (RSI) is a collective term that covers a range of hand, wrist, forearm, neck shoulder, back, and knee and ankle disorders. The upper limb RSI’s are those that are most commonly encountered.Symptoms include:Sensation of tingling, aching or burning,Swelling and / or numbnessPins and needlesIncessant, nagging pain.There are no characteristic clinical signs in RSI. Due to the ambiguous nature of complaints RSI is included in the chronic fatigue syndrome category of diseases.There are two main groups of disorders are localized and diffuse RSI.Localized RSI:Includes:TenosynovitisCarpal tunnel syndromeEpicondylitis (tennis elbow, golfers elbow)These conditions are characterized by clearly defined symptoms and clinical signs. There is little professional disagreement over the existence of such conditions.Tennis elbow (Picture) is a painful inflammation of the tendon at the outer border of the elbow caused by the over use of the forearm muscles.Diffuse RSI:It includes:Poorly localized or diffuse patterns of painTenderness and loss of function in the upper limbThis group with muscles, nerves,tendons and soft tissues being affected, is controversial one, with opinions varying over origin (aetiology).Causes:The diagnosis of RSI may be made by GP’s, occupational health physicians, orthopaedic surgeons, or rheumatologists. The diagnosis rests largely on reported symptoms and nature of the patients work.Localized RSIs are more specific than diffuse RSI’s and may be more positively identified: for example, conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome due to median nerve compression at the wrist, tennis and golfers elbow and tenosynovitis have more diagnostic criteria.Diffuse RSI’s on the other hand, are more problematic. The diagnosing clinician can only rely on symptoms, the type of work and its repetitive nature.There are three main causes:Fixed working positionRepititve motionsPsychological stress.The standard vies is that RSI’s are msuculotendinous injuries of the upper limb, shoulder girdle or neck caused by an overload of particular muscle groups, from repeated use, or by the maintenance of constrained postures, which results in pain, fatigue, and a decline in work performance. An alternative hypothesis is that RSI’s are not organic in nature and are not work- related.Some experts believe that the condition is due to conversion hysteria, whereby psychological conflict is converted into imaginary pain. Others consider the problem to be form of compensation neurosis, that is the patients having symptoms but retain a desire for secondary gain such as compensation payments or time off work.Treatment:Treatment of localized RSI’s is usually with well documented stratagies such asSteroid injection therapyRestSplintingOccupational health ergonomicsPhysiotherapeutic methods: in the more diffuse RSIs, treatment is much more difficult and controversial. Many sufferers resort to alternative medicine therapies such as:AcupunctureManipulation from osteopaths and chiropractorsAlexander technique for postureWork place solutions include:A humane working environmentErgonomically designed workstationsJob rotationIncidence:Most information on incidence comes from Australia, where there was a virtual epidemic of cases between 1980  and 1984. The Australian public service carrying out Audit between 1985 and 1987 , found that 2,706 persons years had been lost during the two year period. The prevalence ranged of cases wasOne percent in clerical administrative staff16 percent among data processor operators24 percent among data processorsRSI complainants were more likely to be female- perhaps because of the nature of their work.Understanding RSITrade unions are believed to have had considerable influence in protracting the problems, whereas health professionals such as orthopedic surgeons and rheumatologists have been less sympathetic towards the nature of the disorder.Consequently, the incidence of reporting has lessened markedly since those years. The Australian public service no longer issued statistics after 1987, and this led to a loss of public interest or awareness. A research project in USA in 1998 estimated that RSI disorders accounted for 56% of all occupational injuries.Prognosis:Conditions in the localized group of RSI disorders are amenable to treatment with steroid injections and physiotherapy. Diffuse disorders are far more difficult to treat mainly due to different attitudes of health professional. Often, the disorder will only resolve on change of occupation or satisfactory settlement of compensation. This latter may involve a costly process of litigation.Prevention:Good working practices and the provision of suitable office furniture, for example , may help in the prevention of RSIs. Employment medical services may provide advice, especially with ergonomic design, on providing the optimum work conditions for employees.

Strain on the Brain

Dr. Amitabha Mukerji, Psychiatrist
The development of Alzheimer’s disease, as we know, has been linked to certain genetic markers. However, as scientists have come to learn more and more about the brain, they have been of the opinion that genetics alone rarely dictates the course of an illness. Rather, the interaction that occurs between a person’s genes and his environment is responsible for determining the nature and course of a disease. In this regard, a set of recent studies has discovered that stress is an important environmental correlate for Alzheimer’s disease.Stress is already known to negatively impact a person’s psychological condition, which involves effects such as depression and anxiety. The finding that stressful conditions might be associated with neurodegenerative diseases, however, is relatively new.Research on environmental factors involved in the development of the Alzheimer’s disease began when researchers noted that some twins did not develop the disease when they were expected to. Twin studies showed that when one twin had developed the disease, the other twin developed the disease only 40 percent of the time. Thus it was concluded that there must be other factors involved, too, since, if genes alone led to the development of the disease, then every twin must share the disease when the other twin had developed it. But clearly this was not the case.Studies suggested that although stress alone does not degrade memory, it does seem to push animals at risk over the edge, making them less able to learn and remember new things. Stress may also hasten the onset of Parkinson’s disease, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor difficulties, namely impaired motor coordination, tremor and rigidity. Parkinson’s symptoms result due to loss of brain cells that produces dopamine, which is a neuro transmitter essential for voluntary movement. In an experiment, a team of researchers found that a group of rats, which had been given corticosterone shots in brain areas comprising dopaminergic neurons elevating their stress hormones and then further exposed to experimentally produced stress, showed poor performance on motor tasks. They concluded that stress hinders the ability of dopamine cells to function normally which might either triggering or aggravating Parkinson’s symptoms.This article is based upon the Scientific American publication, MIND.

6 Ways to Avoid Straining Your Eyes on Computers

Dr. Shelja, Homeopath
The majority of people today in offices spend a great deal of their time in front of the computer screen. Once people get home from work, they tend to fire up the home computer and use it for personal reasons. We can’t avoid spending a lot of time in front of computer screens, these days.It’s become a part of our everyday lives. there are preventative measures that can be taken to help keep the problems to a minimum. Computer vision syndrome has a range of symptoms that include headaches, blurred and double vision,inability to focus, eyestrain, neck and shoulder pain, and watery or dry eyes.  Here are some tips for helping to prevent computer vision syndrome:Check the position. The position of your computer can add to your eye strain. It is important that it is positioned a good distance away, around 20-28 inches from the eye, and that there are no glares on it.Take breaks. Even while on the job, it is important to give your eyes a break when using the computer. Ideally, aim for a 15-minute computer break every two hours,Palming. Close your eyes and gently rest the heels of your hands on your cheekbones, covering your eyes with your palms.Blinking. To help keep the eyes from becoming dry, try to blink often. This will help to keep the eye surface moist and prevent it from drying out. Homeopathy.  Speak with a practitioner to find a level of therapy that will work for your individual circumstances. One of the most common homeopathic remedies to treat eye strain is Ruta  Graveolens. This remedy can greatly reduce the symptoms of eye strain during prolonged computer use.ExerciseLook away from your computer at least every 20 minutes and gaze at a distant object (at least 20 feet away) for at least 20 seconds. Some eye doctors call this the "20-20-20 rule." Looking far away relaxes the focusing muscle inside the eye to reduce fatigue. Another exercise is to look far away at an object for 10-15 seconds, then gaze at something up close for 10-15 seconds. Then look back at the distant object. Do this 10 times.

14 Tips for Avoiding Overuse Strain Injuries

Dr. Vishwas Virmani, Physiotherapist
Here are 14 tips for avoiding overuse strain injuries.Up to 50% of industrial injuries are thought to be attributed to cumulative trauma or overuse injury. These can range from troublesome annoyances, to severe debilitation. For office, building and site managers, there are a number of steps you can take to minimise repetitive strain injury within your workforce.1. Identify and correct postural problems The aim is to eliminate fixed positions which impose static loads on the muscles of the back, neck, shoulders and arms. Poor or improperly-adjusted equipment, furniture or layout is often to blame.2. Identify and eliminate forceful movements The worst are those which involve fingers, hands and wrists, especially with bending or twisting. Check tools, knobs, processes, postures. Do things fit? Is maintenance happening?3. Identify and break up periods of repetitive work The aim is physical variety; use rest pauses and alternated tasks. Consult staff before introducing job rotation.4. Ensure that any tell-tale early-warning signs are noticed and acted upon Supervisors and staff alike will require (a) Training Induction trainingProduction of training videosStrain prevention: training seminars5. Educate supervisors in the recognition and correction of faulty workplace set-out and procedures They should then be accountable for managing this.6. Train staff to recognise and adjust their own workstations properly The benefits of “ergonomic” furniture may otherwise be lost. Be sure to include thorough instruction for all new staff.7. Identify and control work peaks These can be daily, weekly or even annually; individual work loads need monitoring.8. Know which staff are most vulnerable to overuse strain New staff (how thorough is your induction?); those returning from leave; jerky or tense workers; staff using hands and fingers a lot.9. Identify and control sources of individual pressures These may be related to work output requirements, to ‘pacing’ by workmates, to supervisors’ attitudes – or even personal problems. Financial need may push vulnerable staff into harmful overtime. Bonus systems are bad.10. Educate managers, engineers and designers in preventive measures Once they know about ergonomics, they should be able to apply it quickly.11. Carefully-selected tasks matched to individual needs (eg., as specified by a treating doctor) are essential. Close supervision is necessary.13. Keep close to people who are off work sick Letting people know you care about their welfare and recovery will help them a great deal. Weekly phone contact at least; have people come in to collect their pay, and keep them close to their workgroup.14. Keep close to treating doctors Let them know you’re keen to help. Ask them to give specific advice to assist even a partial return-to-work. Invite them to visit you.

Back Strain

Dr. Vishwas Virmani, Physiotherapist
Most musculoskeletal or movement system disorders (MSD) are the result of a PREVENTABLE imbalance that affects the muscles, tendons, and nerves (the soft tissues) of our movement system. Each day we use our body; physical stress and strain sometimes produces microscopic wear and fatigue to our soft tissues. Normally, this fatigue is fully repaired by rest, circulation, and nutrition through the blood supply. When there is a balance between this fatigue and the repair process, we maintain good HealthVaricose veins and their prevention (flight attendants)" class="glossaryLink " style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 13px; line-height: 20px; font-family: Verdana; box-sizing: border-box; text-decoration: none !important; color: rgb(109, 109, 111); border-bottom-style: dotted !important; border-bottom-width: 1px !important; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0) !important;">health. But too much fatigue, coupled with too little repair ,can lead to MSD.RISK FACTORSWORK:Excessive ForceAwkward PostureRepetitionPoor Body MechanicsPoor Ergonomic DesignRailway train seatsSeats for forkliftsCommercial kitchens - design, fitoutCrane cabin designDesign of rehabilitation equipmentDesigning for disabled usersDisabled workers: modification of equipment to suitEmergency Services Rooms - design, layoutIndustrial hand trucks: designKerb design and risksLocomotive cabin interiorsOutpatients' departments: designShip interiorsSupermarket entrancesSupply stores and their layoutSpace planning generallyTrolley design (hospital)Warehouse design and layoutSearch and rescue operations - control room" class="glossaryLink " style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 13px; line-height: 20px; font-family: Verdana; box-sizing: border-box; text-decoration: none !important; color: rgb(109, 109, 111); border-bottom-style: dotted !important; border-bottom-width: 1px !important; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0) !important;">DesignLIFESTYLE:DehydrationPoor NutritionFatigue & InflammationPoor Physical FitnessMuscle ImbalanceHere’s the good news… MSDs are absolutely preventable. MSD prevention strategies seek to reduce daily fatigue and enhance your body’s recovery process. Employing prevention strategies can have an immediate impact on the quality of your life. You can go home with more energy left to do the things that make your life more enjoyable!Prevention is a shared responsibility! The company is responsible for a safe work environment and procedures, and all workplace athletes are responsible for using their body properly and keeping their body fit for work.Ergonomics is about working smarter! An ergonomics improvement process seeks to maximize efficiency and to limit worker fatigue and discomfort. This is part of management’s commitment to building an environment that is safe for work. The improvement process identifies ergonomic work process problems and eliminates them.Proper warm-up & body mechanics will reduce daily fatigue and give you more energy left over at the end of the day! We are ALL athletes in life, so we need to warm-up like athletes to improve our performance and to reduce risk of injury. We should also plan to work smarter… not harder! Proper body mechanics tips to avoid injury: Use two hands to lift objects when possible. Slide parts rather than lift. Keep objects close to the body when carrying and lifting. Push rather than pull whenever possible. Always pivot feet if frequent change in direction is necessary, and never twist the lower back when lifting.When we don’t get enough sleep, increased release of stress hormones raises the level of inflammation in the body. If rest and sleep deficits persist, we become more vulnerable to injuries and chronic diseases. Sleep experts generally agree that most adults require between 6.5-9 hours of sleep each day to maintain optimal Health.There’s a correlation between poor levels of physical fitness and increased risk of disease and injury. The lower the level of fitness, the higher the risk of injury. We should incorporate four types of exercise into our fitness plan: 1) Aerobic or cardiovascular exercise2) strength TrainingInduction trainingWorkplace athletes can use ice or cold therapy to control fatigue and soreness after activity. Ice application should be between 15 to 20 minutes applied directly onto the skin of the affected area. Preferably, crushed ice should be used in a plastic bag with the air removed from the bag. An initial aching and/or burning will be felt when the ice is on the skin. After 5 minutes, this should go away as the ice takes effect. Ice is a great anti-inflammatory! Never use heat after activity.Vitamin & mineral supplements are not a substitute for healthy eating, but they can fill in the gaps and help combat fatigue and inflammation. Many nutrition experts recommend three daily supplements: 1) a high quality multivitamin and mineral supplement, 2) a vitamin D supplement with calcium and magnesium, and 3) an omega-3 fatty acid supplement.

Ice or Heat? Which One Is Better for Pain Relief?

Dr. Aditi Mehta, Physiotherapist
ICE HELPSWhen to use ice:Joint sprain: Use ice on joints when the joint looks swollen and bruised; and it feels hot on touch. Mostly in acute (recent) conditions. Ice is also used in acute flare up in chronic conditions (long standing, origin more than a few weeks ago) e.g. 3 month old persistent shoulder pain increased recently due to excess workMuscle strain: Use ice on muscles in acute injury followed with pain, muscle may look bruised as wellHow to use ice:Use either ice pack or ice cubes or a frozen bag of peas. Always cover the pack with a thin roll of towel to avoid direct contact of skin with iceIce should be applied between 15 to 25 minutes continuously and if required 3-5 times a dayIce is particularly effective if applied in elevation as gravity will also help to decrease the swelling. The injured part needs to be higher than your heartHEAT HELPSAches and pain due to chronic injuries and chronic degenerative conditions like arthritis, spondylitis.Heat increases the blood flow to the area, and relaxes muscles.Don’t use heat on an injury that has happened in the last 48 hours (an acute injury). There may still be bleeding into the area and heat will make this worse.How to use heat:Use a hot water bag or a electric heating pad (at low intensity) or a squeezed towel soaked in hot waterFor small joints of hands and feet, use bucket of warm water to dip the affected part. In swollen joints may add Epson salt to water for better effect (only occasional use and not to be used in diabetics, renal disease)Application time 20 min

Cheer for Team India, Play Like Team India- Let Us Help You Avoid Injuries!

Dr. Meeta Nanda (P.T.), Physiotherapist
As they say, “Cricket is a religion in India” which makes World Cup a mega festival. Looking at Team India’s such a Brilliant and hard working performance, lets talk about the probable injuries that may occur as a side effect of this hard work-Top 5 Cricket InjuriesHamstring StrainWhat is a Hamstring Strain?A Hamstring Strain is a tear in the muscle tissue. Hamstring strains tend to affect all cricketers regardless of position and account for around 15% of all cricket injuries. Hamstring strains occur during explosive sprinting activities such as bowling, taking a quick single or fielding a ball.What should you do if you suffer a Hamstring Strain?If you have a Hamstring Strain follow the RICE protocol - rest, ice and compression and elevation (never apply ice directly to the skin). If you have to apply ice at home, an Ice Bag is recommended. This is a safe method of ice application to avoid the risk of an ice burn.Seek advice from a doctor or Chartered Physiotherapist regarding rehabilitation . Most Hamstring Strains will be fully healed by 6 weeks, but recurrent problems can occur when a return to play is attempted too early.Low Back PainWhat can you do to prevent Low Back Pain?Fast bowling in cricket requires a combination of bending backwards together with rotation and side bending of the trunk. When repeated continuously this puts excessive stress on an area of the vertebra called the Pars Interarticularis and this is where a stress fracture develops.What should you do if you suffer Low Back Pain?A soothing Heat pack can reduce back pain and back muscle spasm. Once diagnosed, stress fractures of the lower back usually require 6 weeks of rest to allow the bone to heal. During this period, an exercise programme under the supervision of a Chartered Physiotherapist can be started . This focuses on exercises to increase the muscular stability in the lower back.Research has shown that poor muscular stability in the lumbar region can lead to low back pain. Core stability exercises target certain specific muscles which give the spine much better support. This prevents postural faults which can cause low back pain.Side StrainWhat is a Side Strain?A Side Strain is fairly common in cricket, where it typically occurs in bowlers. A Side Strain refers to a tear of the Internal Oblique, the External Oblique, or the Transversalis fascia at the point where they attach to the four bottom ribs.In cricket the bowlers suffer the Side Strain on the non bowling arm side as a result of a forcible contraction of the muscle on that side while they are fully stretched as the bowling arm is cocked for bowling.What can you do to prevent a Side Strain?Core strength exercises on an Exercise Mat using a Swiss Ball and Resistance Bands can improve muscle function across the trunk and pelvis and this can help to reduce the risk of a Side Strain.The number of overs bowled per session should be increased gradually and adequate rest periods should be provided to prevent fatigue.What should you do if you suffer a Side Strain?In the early stages an Ice Pack can be applied for twenty minutes every two hours. A Cohesive Compression Bandage can be applied to help to limit bleeding in the tissues. More active rehabilitation can be started under the supervision of a Chartered Physiotherapist, once the immediate pain resolvesShoulder PainWhat is Shoulder Pain?Shoulder pain is common in cricket because of the repeated actions of throwing and bowling. The Rotator Cuff muscles are small muscles situated around the shoulder joint, which can become damaged due to overuse during cricket.Rotator Cuff injuries often begin as inflammation caused by repeated irritation. If the cause of the inflammation is not addressed, partial tears may develop in the cuff that could eventually become a tear all the way through one or more of the Rotator Cuff muscles.What can you do to prevent Shoulder Pain?Correct throwing and bowling technique can help to reduce injury risk. Shoulder stabilization exercises under the supervision of a Chartered Physiotherapist can also help prevent damage to the Rotator Cuff tendons.It is important that any increase in the amount of training or competition must be gradual in order to prevent overload of the Rotator Cuff muscles. In particular, bowling and fielding practice should be increased gradually to allow the Rotator Cuff tendons to adapt.What should you do if you suffer Shoulder Pain?Physiotherapy treatment can reduce acute (short-term) inflammation and chronic (long-term) degeneration of the cuff where a tear is not present. The objective of physiotherapy treatment is to limit inflammation using Ice Therapy. Anti-inflammatory medication prescribed by a doctor is often helpful.Sprained AnkleWhat is a Sprained Ankle?A Sprained Ankle is damage to the ligaments and soft tissues around the ankle, usually as a result of the ankle being twisted inwards. The ankle ligament and soft tissue damage produces bleeding within the tissues and an extremely painful, swollen ankle.What can you do to prevent a Sprained Ankle?Research has shown that bracing or taping the ankle can help to reduce the risk of a Sprained Ankle.What should you do if you suffer a Sprained Ankle?Immediately following a Sprained Ankle you can follow the PRICE protocol - Protection with an Aircast Walker, Rest, Ice Therapy, Compression with a Cohesive Bandage and Elevation of the ankle to reduce swelling.Rehabilitation with a Chartered Physiotherapist significantly improves the outcome following a Sprained Ankle. Wobble Board training improves balance and proprioception.

6 Ways to Avoid Sports Injuries

Mr. Kaleem Mohammed, Physiotherapist
Most of us like to play some or the other sports. As long as we are injury free, it is always great fun, but sometimes sports injuries may take place, which can be a bummer!Sports injuries are commonly classified into trauma/acute injuries and overuse/stress injuries. The difference between the two is simple. Trauma injuries are due to a sudden twist or pull, or any other impact. Stress or overuse injuries occur when a part of our body is over-exercised without enough rest in between.Many lists describe the most common sports injuries in men. These lists have minor disagreements, but in general, they agree that the most frequent sports injuries are sprains (tearing of ligaments) and strains (over-stretching or tearing of muscles or tendons). Bruises or contusions are also a common result of trauma, but bruises rarely cause serious complications.Most common sports injuries include:BruisesKnee joint injuries: Pain, swelling, and stiffness ligaments or tendons injuriesAnkle sprain: Sprain, strains, fractures.Cuts and abrasionsDehydration: Excessive fluid loss causes heat exhaustion and heat stroke.Groin pull/strain: Symptoms include pain and swelling.Hamstring strain: Symptoms are a pain, swelling and bruising.Stress fractures: The impact of repeated jumps or running on hard surfaces can stress and break bones.Playing sports is much fun. Getting hurt is not.Follow these 6 steps to prevent injuries so you can stay in the game:1. Warm UpIt is not a good concept to just bolt on to the field and start playing. You should not even start stretching until you are a little warmed up. So take a light jog to get loosened up and ready to play. Increasing the heart rate and circulation; this loosens the joints and increases blood circulation to the muscles. Full-Body Stretch helps muscles to prepare them for physical activity and prevents injuries.2. Wear Protective GearProtective gears are anything you wear that helps keep you from injuries. The gear you use depends on the type of sports.The helmet is a most frequently used protective shield. It keeps you safe from head injuries when you are playing football, cricket, ice hockey, or baseball. Make sure you are wearing the right and comfortable helmet for your sport. Other sports require eye protection, mouth guards, pads, wrist, elbow, and knee guards, and a protective cup (for boys only). Moreover, don't forget your feet. Shin-guards are a must have gear for preventing trauma induced fractures in sports such as soccer and hockey.3. Proper healthy nutritionHealthy nutrition can enhance sporting performance because protein rich diet should provide enough protein to promote muscle mass growth and injury repair. Water is an excellent choice of fluid for athletes to help performance and prevent dehydration. Foods rich in unrefined carbohydrates, like whole grain bread and cereals, should form the basis of the diet.4. Early intervention and restMost of the sports injuries such as painful pulled muscle or sprains and strains are treated immediately with R.I.C.E. (rest, ice, compression, and elevation) protocol.Many sports physical therapists and athletes remember this short-form to help with sports injuries.Rest (minimizes motion and pressure over of the injured joint)Icing (apply an ice pack) to reduce pain and swelling and decrease blood flow to injured areaCompression (light pressure wrap to stop bleeding and swelling)Elevation (to drain the fluids from injured area to prevent swelling)5. Slow-fast-slow RhythmDuring physical activities, adding interval (slow-fast-slow) training into your exercise routine helps to improve your heart’s ability to beat at a high rate for prolonged periods. That is a real plus for your aerobic fitness. Moreover, oxygen is circulated in your body at a slower rate, so it increases your ability for a longer stay during workouts. The simple rule is that always warm up before any sports or exercise, and always cool down at the end by gently stretching your muscles and breathing out slowly.Further, when starting any weight bearing exercise after a while, always take precaution that you do not start off with a heavyweight, but a much lighter one that you can easily exercise with. Don’t worry if anyone is looking!If you manage to follow these simple five rules, you can easily avoid most types of sports injuries and continue to enjoy the sports you like.6. Do not over-stretch yourselfIt is critical to take part in physical activities, to listen to your body and know your physical limits. When you begin a new sport, begin steadily and slowly to avoid muscle pull. If you have not undertaken a strenuous exercise for some time, it is especially crucial to building up your endurance and strength gradually to avoid injury. It is essential when taking part in physical activities, to listen to your body and know your physical limits.

Better Workplace: Ergonomics at Work

Dr. Amol Kadu, Orthopedist
What is "ergonomics"? Ergonomics means “Fitting the job to the worker.”Ergonomics... is the science and practice of designing jobs and workplaces to match the capabilities and limitations of the human body. As early as in18th century doctors noted that workers who required to maintain body positions for long periods of time developed musculoskeletal problems.Within last 20 years, research has clearly established connections between certain job tasks and RSI or MSD. To understand the problem we should know what are the reasons behind these problem. What two elements are at work?•       Static work: Musculoskeletal effort required to hold a certain position, even a comfortable one.•       Force:  Amount of tension our muscles generateThese forces cause excessive and repetitive stresses on the muscles, joints and tendons and gives rise to various musculoskeletal problems. Hence, it becomes imperative for us to create a working environment which is ergonomically fit for the work.Benefits of Ergonomics•       Ergonomics helps to prevent injuries •       Ergonomics Improves quality of work •       Improves quality of life & Reduced fatigue and discomfortWhat? Overuse injuries, soft tissue injuries which occur gradually also known as Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTDs) or Repetitive Strain Injuries (RSIs) are Work-related  Musculo-Skeletal Disorders(WMSD). Common WMSDs are:•       Carpal tunnel syndrome•       Slipped spinal discs•       Rotator cuff tendinitis•       De’quervain’s tendinitis•       Trigger finger•       Carpet layer’s knee•       Tennis elbow       Heavy, frequent, or awkward lifting, pushing, pulling or carrying loads, working in awkward postures, intensive hand work, like pinching, gripping, repetitive postures, vibrations are the common causes of WMSDs.The common symptoms are painful joints like wrist, knees, shoulders, tingling, numbness in fingers, severe nagging pain in both legs and feet, severe back ache or neck pain, reduced range of movements in joints, loss of grip or difficulty in holding objects.To avoid these problems, dictum "Prevention is better than cure" fits perfectly... So ,lets start by knowing how we can avoid these problems. To get started:a)      Warm up & stretch before activities that are repetitive, static or prolongedb)      Take frequent breaks from ANY sustained posture every 20-30 minutesc)       Respect pain   -  positions or stop painful activityd)      Recognize early signs of inflammatory process, & report  earlye)      Maintain proper postures while sitting and standingf)       Avoid lifting heavy weights.g)      Slide objects instead of lifting them h)      Store heavy items where  you won’t have to bend or reach to lift themi)        Use ladders to get items down from high shelves.j)       Hold objects closer to your body when liftingThe key is to Relax yourself at work. Its really important to create ergonomical habits and environment at work place to protect yourself.•       Take "stretch pauses": Take frequent breaks from ANY sustained posture every 20-30 minutes. •       Improve your posture •       Move around as much as possible•       Warm up & stretch before activities that are repetitive, static or prolonged•       Recognize early signs of inflammation •       Help yourself to avoid such problems.•       Understand your work and do it right way.•       Work towards improving your working conditions•       Be ergonomical at work.•       Reporting problem early is important.It's really important to realise the importance of ergonomics at work and follow it at work. Otherwise , over the months & years the work will take its toll on your body.So, be fit and keep ur workplace fitter!