Articles on sports medicine

Sports Injuries In Young Athletes - An Overview

Dr. Senthilvelan.R, Orthopedist
The prevalence of injuries in young athletes is on the rise as more and more young children take upon more intense sports training. There are multi factorial reasons which contribute to overuse injuries in young athletes. Targeted interventions are necessary in prevention of these injuries.Children have numerous benefits when they stay active and physically fit by participating in sports, however there is concern regarding safety of intense sports participation of young athletes. Almost 1/3rd to 50 percent of injuries in this age group is as a result of overuse.Chronic overuse injuries are generally defined as injuries that occur because of increased levels of physiological stress without sufficient recovery time. A number of prevention strategies are available to prevent which target the athlete's neuro-muscular control mechanisms to reduce the likelihood of injury.Numbers of extrinsic risk factors are often implicated in over use injuries. These can occur in a number of scenarios. In the first scenario the athlete may attempt to rapidly increase training load after period of inactivity and this could result in stress fractures. In this situation the body does not have enough time to adapt to higher level of stress and is not adequately prepared to dissipate repetitive forces.A second scenario is when an athlete attempts to participate at a level that exceeds individual’s skill level. There could be potential mismatch between skill and fitness level to that of imposed physical demand and can potentially lead to injury.Coaches or PT masters at school should understand the physical fitness levels of children at school and design training in a  way to provide appropriate progression of training.Ways to prevent Overuse injuries:1. A young athlete needs to be assessed in regards to readiness of running and his/hers relative risk of running related injury. Determining the fitness level before running, length of running and prior running injuries and previous sports needs to be documented.2. Modifying training volumes for athletes who have recently undergone growth spurts are recommended to reduce stress on growing bones.3. Provision of individualized training programs taking into account their fitness level, and injuries._______________________________________________________________________________________

Mouthguards

Dr. Pankaj Rao, Dentist
A mouthguard is a protective device for the mouth that covers the teeth and gums to prevent and reduce injury to the teeth, arches, lips and gums. A mouthguard is most often used to prevent injury in contact sports, as a treatment for bruxism or TMD, or as part of certain dental procedures, such as tooth bleaching. Mouth guards are an important piece of athletic equipment for anyone participating in a sport that involves falls, body contact or flying equipment. This includes football, basketball, baseball, soccer, hockey, skateboarding, gymnastics, mountain biking — any activity that might result in an injury to the mouth.    FUNCTIONS OF MOUTHGUARDS In their book Textbook and Color Atlas of Traumatic Injuries to the Teeth, Andreasen and Andreasen8 list 8 basic mouthguard functions:(1) Mouthguards prevent laceration and bruising during impact by acting as a buffer between the soft tissues of the lips and cheeks and the teeth.(2) Mouthguards prevent tooth fractures or dislocations by cushioning the teeth from direct frontal blows while redistributing the forces of impact.(3) Opposing teeth are protected from seismic contact with each other.(4) The mandible is afforded elastic, recuperative support that can prevent fracture or damage to the unsupported angle of the lower jaw.(5) Mouthguards help reduce neurologic injury by acting as shock absorbers between the upper and lower jaws. Without a mouthguard, the trauma of the jaws violently jarring together can distribute the impact from the condyles of the mandible against the base of the skull, resulting in concussion.(6) Mouthguards can provide positive reinforcement in the prevention of neck injuries.9(7) Mouthguards provide a psychologic benefit to athletes. Findings suggest athletes feel more confident and aggressive when they have the proper protection.10(8) Mouthguards fill edentulous spaces and thereby help support adjacent teeth. This allows removable prostheses to be taken out during athletic competition.                                                                                                                                                                                               Types of mouth-guards:Custom-fitted - Built and fitted to the shape of your mouth by a related professional. These mouthguards have been proven to reduce the number and extreme harshness of mouth injuries in sport and during training.Boil and bite-once the lining is softened in boiling water, the person bites on the mouthguard to help it take the shape of their mouth. The process of biting down onto the softened lining can decrease the guard thickness and therefore its effectiveness. These mouthguards can be uncomfortable to wear. Ready-made -these are ready to wear available over the counter at sports shopsand chemists. While these are the cheapest mouthguard, they also offer the least amount of protection. They are (taking up a lot of space for its  weight) and hard to keep in the mouth due to their poor fit.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Custom made mouthguards Teeth related Health Services Victoria (DHSV) recommends custom fitted mouthguards as these provide the most effective protection.A custom made mouthguard should: Fit snugly and be comfortable Allow (usual/commonly and regular/ healthy) breathing and swallowing Allow the wearer to speak Be odorless and (having no taste/rude and offensive) Be thick enough (4mm) to provide protection against hit/effect. Caring for your mouthguard case- 1)Take the mouthguard along to your teeth-related visits to secure/make sure of it still fits correctly. A mouthguard may need to be replaced as changes occur in your mouth, such as the eruption of permanent teeth or restoration.                                                         2)Mouthguards need to be rinsed in cold water before use. After use, dry and store in a plastic  container with air vents to allow the air to circulate. 3)Once in a while, clean it with soapy water and rinse completely.4)Mouthguards should be kept in a cool place as they can distort if left in the sun or hot water. 5)Remember: Mouthguards should be worn during training sessions and match play if there is a risk of contact with another person or object including balls, bats, sticks or racquets. fig-1 custom and boil&bite mouth-guardMouth guards should ideally be replaced after each season because they can wear down over time, making them less effective. Replacement is especially important for adolescents because their mouths continue to grow and teeth continue to develop into adulthood. Many athletes who play several sports have new mouth guards made when they go for their six-month dental checkup.Summary Dentists are encouraged to ask patients if they participate in team sports or other activities with risks of injury to the teeth, jaw and oral soft tissues (mouth, lip, tongue, or inner lining of the cheeks). The council  recommend that people of all ages use aproperly fitted mouthguard in any sporting or recreational activity that may present/cause a risk of injury. 

6 Ways to Avoid Sports Injuries

Mr. Kaleem Mohammed, Physiotherapist
Most of us like to play some or the other sports. As long as we are injury free, it is always great fun, but sometimes sports injuries may take place, which can be a bummer!Sports injuries are commonly classified into trauma/acute injuries and overuse/stress injuries. The difference between the two is simple. Trauma injuries are due to a sudden twist or pull, or any other impact. Stress or overuse injuries occur when a part of our body is over-exercised without enough rest in between.Many lists describe the most common sports injuries in men. These lists have minor disagreements, but in general, they agree that the most frequent sports injuries are sprains (tearing of ligaments) and strains (over-stretching or tearing of muscles or tendons). Bruises or contusions are also a common result of trauma, but bruises rarely cause serious complications.Most common sports injuries include:BruisesKnee joint injuries: Pain, swelling, and stiffness ligaments or tendons injuriesAnkle sprain: Sprain, strains, fractures.Cuts and abrasionsDehydration: Excessive fluid loss causes heat exhaustion and heat stroke.Groin pull/strain: Symptoms include pain and swelling.Hamstring strain: Symptoms are a pain, swelling and bruising.Stress fractures: The impact of repeated jumps or running on hard surfaces can stress and break bones.Playing sports is much fun. Getting hurt is not.Follow these 6 steps to prevent injuries so you can stay in the game:1. Warm UpIt is not a good concept to just bolt on to the field and start playing. You should not even start stretching until you are a little warmed up. So take a light jog to get loosened up and ready to play. Increasing the heart rate and circulation; this loosens the joints and increases blood circulation to the muscles. Full-Body Stretch helps muscles to prepare them for physical activity and prevents injuries.2. Wear Protective GearProtective gears are anything you wear that helps keep you from injuries. The gear you use depends on the type of sports.The helmet is a most frequently used protective shield. It keeps you safe from head injuries when you are playing football, cricket, ice hockey, or baseball. Make sure you are wearing the right and comfortable helmet for your sport. Other sports require eye protection, mouth guards, pads, wrist, elbow, and knee guards, and a protective cup (for boys only). Moreover, don't forget your feet. Shin-guards are a must have gear for preventing trauma induced fractures in sports such as soccer and hockey.3. Proper healthy nutritionHealthy nutrition can enhance sporting performance because protein rich diet should provide enough protein to promote muscle mass growth and injury repair. Water is an excellent choice of fluid for athletes to help performance and prevent dehydration. Foods rich in unrefined carbohydrates, like whole grain bread and cereals, should form the basis of the diet.4. Early intervention and restMost of the sports injuries such as painful pulled muscle or sprains and strains are treated immediately with R.I.C.E. (rest, ice, compression, and elevation) protocol.Many sports physical therapists and athletes remember this short-form to help with sports injuries.Rest (minimizes motion and pressure over of the injured joint)Icing (apply an ice pack) to reduce pain and swelling and decrease blood flow to injured areaCompression (light pressure wrap to stop bleeding and swelling)Elevation (to drain the fluids from injured area to prevent swelling)5. Slow-fast-slow RhythmDuring physical activities, adding interval (slow-fast-slow) training into your exercise routine helps to improve your heart’s ability to beat at a high rate for prolonged periods. That is a real plus for your aerobic fitness. Moreover, oxygen is circulated in your body at a slower rate, so it increases your ability for a longer stay during workouts. The simple rule is that always warm up before any sports or exercise, and always cool down at the end by gently stretching your muscles and breathing out slowly.Further, when starting any weight bearing exercise after a while, always take precaution that you do not start off with a heavyweight, but a much lighter one that you can easily exercise with. Don’t worry if anyone is looking!If you manage to follow these simple five rules, you can easily avoid most types of sports injuries and continue to enjoy the sports you like.6. Do not over-stretch yourselfIt is critical to take part in physical activities, to listen to your body and know your physical limits. When you begin a new sport, begin steadily and slowly to avoid muscle pull. If you have not undertaken a strenuous exercise for some time, it is especially crucial to building up your endurance and strength gradually to avoid injury. It is essential when taking part in physical activities, to listen to your body and know your physical limits.

5 Important Things to Prevent Sports Injuries

Dr. Shekhar Srivastav, Orthopedist
Sports is being taken up by more & more people especially young ones as hobby & profession. With Gyms & fitness centres mushrooming across the country, there is a rush among general population to train hard becoming physically fit. Being fit definitely increases the productivity & also makes the person feel good about themselves. But this has also seen a spurt in sports related injuries in these group of people. Most common cause of injuries are due to overuse. These can be avoided if certain simple rules are followed.You cannot become fit overnight by starting exercises and pushing your body beyond its limit to get quick results. Most athletes & sports persons have years of training & hard work behind them to reach this level. Increase the intensity & duration of your exercises gradually in a phased manner to get desired result.Warm-up- Proper warm-up before starting any sports is essential to prevent injury. Warm-up increases the blood flow to the muscles, stretches muscles, increases flexibility to prevent injuries.Strengthening- Strengthening of required muscles is essential for balance & power during the sporting activity. Weak muscles may increase the stress on other parts of the body leading to problems.Stretching- Stiff joints are more prone to injuries during sports. Stretching of ligaments & tendons & flexibility of joints can prevent that.Rest- Rest is very important to allow the tissues to repair & recover. One should always have a rest day in a week in your training schedule to allow your tissues to heal.

Generously Generic: Know Your Medicines

Dr. Tanoy Bose, Internal Medicine
One fine winter evening when I was consulting a 45 year old obese fair lady who actually forgot to bring her past health records, I enquired about the medicines she is taking on daily basis. She recollected a few brands which I noted down. On asking whether she is on Aspirin or Thyroxine, she denied of such drug but quickly recollected that she takes Eltroxin 50mcg and Ecosprin AV75mg daily. Well, she did not know that the active ingredient of Eltroxin is Levo Thyroxine and that of Ecosprin AV is Aspirin & Ator vastatin combined. The former is given to replace thyroid hormone deficiency to those who are hypothyroid and the latter is usually given to those who are suffering or are at the risk of developing coronary artery disease. If I am not that very wrong, more than 95% of patients do not remember medicines by their generic names. So what difference does it make? Well, it’s the money that matters. For those who are ill-informed, the market prices of most of the drugs of regular as well as special use are tagged with exceptionally high price just for the sake of an industry.The statistics from McKinsey & Co. states that the growth rates of Indian Pharmaceutical Industry is compounding at 12 to 14% per annum since last 5 years and have projected the value of the industry is going to be around $20 to $24 Billion by 2015. This growth would be driven primarily by rising incomes, and be supported by five other factors: enhanced medical infrastructure; rise in the prevalence and treatment of chronic diseases; greater health insurance coverage; launches of patented products; and new market creation in existing white spaces. If we zero down to the basic issue of generics versus branded drugs it is the pocket pinch that matters. I don’t think if quality is assured, people will love to shell out more for a branded drug rather than buying a generic product.What are generics?All drugs are products of research. They are born in a research laboratory and end up in a pharmacy shop. Whatever be the results of the research product in the laboratory, their usage in general public for any particular indication is highly regulated by the US FDA. Financially the companies have to bear a huge burden to research and develop a drug, undergo clinical trials for them in phasic manner and further make them available for general prescription. Further, after the drug is launched and approved by USFDA the company holds a patent for the drug for say tenure of 10 to 12 years. Hence, during this period the cost of drug is very high as the company needs to recover the cost of R&D. However, after lapse of license,the drug molecule is available for other companies to copy and rebrand and bring them into market again. The cost of the drug falls drastically now as the companies now selling the copied drug did not have to spend on the R&D. The only investment for these companies is the price of the molecule and the technology of packaging and marketing. These drugs which are sold under different brand names after the post licensing period of a particular molecule are called generic drugs. However, the qualities of these generic drugs are also under FDA regulation. According to FDA, to substitute a generic for a brand name drug must follow these criteria:It must contain the same active ingredient, the same dosage strength and the same dosage form (e.g. tablets, syrup etc) and have the same route of administration and further it must deliver the same of active ingredient to the blood stream.Hence cheaper does not mean poor quality. The difference from patented drugs is the generics may vary in shape,size, color or taste. They have different inactive ingredients. However, there are authorized generics that need to maintain similarity in these parameters too. Almost 50% of all drugs prescribed in India are generics. Thus generic drugs may cost almost 20 to 80% cheaper than the patented drug.Is the quality guaranteed in a generic formulation?Researchers have compared patented drugs with generic formulation from different companies in a random manner and 36 of 38 studies virtually found no differences in the drug quality control. But, FDA has barred the publication of drug equivalence studies. Hence it is difficult for the prescribing doctor to know whether there had been any difference between the drugs in the equivalence study or not. It’s worth mentioning thatIndia tops the world in exporting generic medicines worth of Rs.50,000 Crores and currently Indian Pharmaceutical industry is one of the world’s largest & most developed.What is the price paid for not using generics? It’s worth mentioning that India tops the world in exporting generic medicines worth of Rs.50,000 crores and currently Indian Pharmaceutical industry is one of the world’s largest & most developed.In spite of being the largest exporter of generics in the world the story behind the screen is very dull. Just have a look at few of the statistics.WHO says that 3.2% of Indians will fall below poverty line because of inflated medical bills.Approximately one third of the rural population do not seek medical treatment due to financial constraints.And about 47% of rural and 31% of urban hospitalizations are financed by loan and sale of assets.About 70% of Indians are spending their out of pocket income on medicines and healthcare services in comparison to 35% in other Asian countries and are still suffering from infectious & communicable diseases due to lack of quality and affordable treatmentWhere do I get the generics?Generic medicines are best bought from the government sponsored generic drug shopped opened under the banner of “JANAUSHADHI”in most of the Indian states. Janaushadhi stores are functioning under the banner of Bureau of Pharma PSUs of India (BPPI) under the aegis of Department of Pharmaceuticals, Government of India. States like Punjab, Delhi, Haryana,Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Uttarakhand, Chandigarh, Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Jharkhand have already implemented Janaushadhi stores providing quality generic medicines at a cheap and affordable price. Few states like West Bengal has initiated Fair Price Medicine shops in a Public Private Partnership models to provide generic medicines at a whopping discount of up to 62.7%. They are opened adjacent to or in collaboration with different government healthcare establishment the largest being at the SSKM Hospital, Kolkata.Can we have examples of price comparison?I have made an attempt to compare the prices of the generics available on the website of Janaushadhi to that of branded generics available in the market. In fact I have approached a regular chemist shop and asked for these prices. Also I have reduced the quote by 11%as that particular chemist shop was giving a discount of 11% on any drug bought from the chemist. Now let’s compare the cheapest discounted branded drugs with the Janaushadhi generics. Generics and Branded Generics : The price difference This comparison is bound to raise eye brows. I am sure it’s unthinkable for most of us that we had been buying medicines at such high price and we are at the verge of realization after sucha long period of illiteracy. Do we get all sorts of medicines at these generic drug stores?Well, wish the answer could have been yes. Unfortunately all medicines are not available at the generic drug stores.While scrolling down the list provided by Janaushadhi website I found drugs for treatment of Rheumatoid Diseases are missing. Drugs for treating neurogenic pain, Parkinsonism, schizophrenia, newer drugs for diabetes management,inhalers and insulins are missing. I am sure they will soon be incorporated or might have been incorporated by now. Even without these drugs the net price of the monthly medications fall drastically if purchased from the generic drugstore.Any words of Caution?Well, there has to be some words of caution. The country is lagging in maintenance of quality control and most of the quality control is outsourced. Further, the government not necessarily declares the data of quality check to the general public. Hence, many doctors keep on highlighting the quality of the generic medicines.My recommendation is, whenever you have the opportunity to buy the drugs from a government sponsored stores, consider the quality is guaranteed by the government. Hence, you can very well go and purchase the medicine and use it personally.Adverse Reactions: Unless the drug is too spurious, it is unlikely that somebody will suffer from any adverse reaction. Spurious drugs are usually sold in peripheral aspects of a city or major town mostly is districts and village areas. Hence, one should be very careful about purchasing generic drugs from these areas.What I practice and recommend?When I am sitting in my clinic at Kolkata, I write the composition of the drug e.g. Paracetamol.[ Drug that reduces fever ], Amlodipine [Drug that controls blood pressure] ,Pantoprazole [ An Antacid ] instead of the brand names. This helps the patients in two ways. Either they can go to the Fair Price shop and buy the cheapest ones and save a lot, or they can go to any chemist and ask the chemist to provide the brand which is cheapest for that particular composition. I do practice in districts of West Bengal where there are brands which I have never heard off. In these areas I always write the brand of the drug and tend to keep the price low. In this way the spurious drug sellers can be fended away and I can ensure that quality drug is served and chances of health hazard is minimum.

Sports Make You Fit & Amp; Improves Your Professional Skills

Ms. Swati Kapoor, Dietitian/Nutritionist
Playing a sport is a fun activity and keeps you fit mentally and physically. It engages the mind and body while energizing and de-stressing you at the same time. All sports keep you active and improve blood flow in the body. Whether you are good at playing the sport or not it will always benefit you and improve  your fitness level. Playing any sport builds self-confidence, develops your personality and infact helps you understand yourself better. Most successful people enjoy playing a sport and even use it as an opportunity to network with other professionals. Being good at a  sport can help you also get successful professionally as it helps develop & sharpen essential traits like competition, strategy and desire to win in an individual.Playing a sport is a great workout for the body as it improves breathing while working the muscles in the body. It drastically improves your endurance, strength, stamina and helps build lean muscles. Besides for some people it is more engaging and exciting than going to a gym. To help you get better at a sport that you enjoy as a hobby or a fitness routine we have put together a few tips to improve your performance at the sport and enjoy more benefits.Tips for weight loss with sportsWarm-up: Before you get into the game do some warm-ups as it will activate the entire body by the increasing the blood flow. Warm-up reduces the chances of muscle cramps and preparing the body for the main event. This warm-up also makes you burn some calories which are an addition to the calorie burn during workouts.Practice: Before you get into actually playing the sport practise a few shots or get the movements and postures correct to do them right in the sport. Like if you are going to play football, kick around the ball and try to get the feel of it. Practise different strokes, positions and styles to play a quality game. This also burns extra calories plus involves you more into the sport for a higher intensity workouts.Ask friends to Join: We all love our friends company as it lets the time fly and we enjoy the moments with them. Involving friends makes you work out more than you would with strangers. Friends will keep you motivated and you could make your own team for that sport to enjoy it more.Stretching: After you have done playing don't get under the shower to relax your body. Cool your body with stretching exercise which helps the muscles to relax and stretch to avoid muscle puls, pain and cramps. Do all the stretching exercise which will keep your muscles relaxed.Play at a moderate intensity initially to avoid over stressing of muscles and running out of breath. Build stamina first and try to do more every time you play. Learn breathing techniques while playing the sport to avoid getting tired quickly.

Psychiatry and Siddha Medicine

Dr. Jerome Xavier, Siddha
சித்த மருத்துவமும் மன நோய்களும் psychiatry and siddha medicine           சித்த மருத்துவமும் மன நோய்களும்சித்த மருத்துவத்தில் மன நோய்களுக்கான முழுமையான சிகிச்சை முறைகள் உள்ளன என்பதை அறிமுகப்படுத்தவே இந்தக் கட்டுரை.பொதுவாக மன நோயாளிகள் தொடர்ந்து மருந்துகள் சாப்பிட்டுக் கொண்டிருக்கும்வரை சரியாக இருப்பார்கள். மருந்தை இடையில் கொஞ்சம் நிறுத்தினாலும் மீண்டும் பிரச்சனைகள் உருவாக ஆரம்பிக்கும்.அப்படியானால் மன நோயாளிகள் அனைவரும் வாழ்நாள் முழுவதும் மருந்துகள் எடுத்துக் கொண்டேதான் இருக்க வேண்டுமா?இல்லை.அப்படியானால் ஏன் பெரும்பாலானவர்களுக்கு மன நோய் முற்றிலுமாக குணமாவதில்லை?சித்த மருத்துவத்தில் மன நோய்கள்:சித்த மருத்துவம் மன நோய்களை பல்வேறு விதமாக வகைப்படுத்துகிறது.மன நோய்கள் ஒரு தனி பிரிவாக(Psychiatry) சித்த மருத்துவத்தில் உள்ளது. கிரிகை நோய்கள் என இவை வகைப்படுத்தப்படுகின்றன.யூகி, அகத்தியர் போன்ற சித்த மருத்துவ அறிஞர்களின் நூல்கள் மன நோய்களைப் பற்றி விளக்குகின்றன.சித்த மருத்துவத்தில் மன நோய்கள்:-               கிரிகை-               பிரமை-               உன்மத்தம்-               மதஅழிவுஎன பலவிதமாக வகைப்படுத்தப்படுகின்றன.மன நோய்களுக்கான அடிப்படை காரணங்கள்:மரபணு ரீதியாக வருபவை(Genetic)உடலில் இயங்கும் இயக்கங்களை வாதம், பித்தம், கபம் போன்றவற்றில் மாறுபாடுகளால் ஏற்படும் மன கோளாறுகள்.உடல் தாதுக்களான சாரம் (fluid part of all tissues), இரத்தம், தசை, எலும்பு, கொழுப்பு, நரம்பு, விந்து அல்லது அண்டம் ஆகிய ஏழு உடல் தாதுக்களில் ஏற்படும் பாதிப்பினால் உண்டாகும் மன நோய்கள்.நச்சுக்கள் மற்றும் மருந்துகளால் ஏற்படும் பாதிப்புகள்(Toxins).புற காரணிகள் (Social factors).மன நோய்களுக்கான சிகிச்சை:நான்கு நிலைகளாக மன நோயாளிகளுக்கு சிகிச்சை அளிக்கப்படும் போதுதான் முழுமையான விடுதலை கிடைக்கும்.முதல் கட்ட சிகிச்சை:உடலில் மாறுபாடடைந்த இயக்கங்களான வாதம், பித்தம், கபம் என்பவைகளை சரியான அளவுக்கு கொண்டுவர வேண்டும்.இதற்கு முதலில் நோயாளியின் நாடிநிலையை (Pulse reading) கணித்து அதற்குரிய சிகிச்சையை செய்ய வேண்டும்.இரண்டாம் கட்ட சிகிச்சை:பலவீனமடைந்த உடல் தாதுக்களை பலப்படுத்தும் விதத்தில் மருந்துகளையும், உணவுகளையும் கொடுக்க வேண்டும்.மூன்றாம் கட்ட சிகிச்சை:என்ன நோயினால் பாதிக்கப்பட்டிருக்கிறார் என கண்டறிந்த அதற்குரிய மருந்துகளைக் கொடுக்க வேண்டும்.இதில் உள் மருந்து மற்றும் புற மருந்துகளைக் கொடுத்து சிகிச்சை அளிக்கப்படுகிறது.நான்காம் கட்ட சிகிச்சை:மேற்கண்ட மூன்றும் உடலை சரிசெய்வதற்கான சிகிச்சைகள். இதனை அடுத்து மனதை சரிசெய்வதற்காக சில பயிற்சிகளை கொடுக்க வேண்டும்.இதற்கு அட்டாங்க யோகம் எனும் எட்டுவித பயிற்சிகள் உள்ளன.இயமம்நியமம்ஆசனம் – யோகாசனம்பிரணாயாமம் – மூச்சுப்பயிற்சிபிரத்தியாகாரம்தாரணைதியானம் – Meditationசமாதிபோன்ற மனதை நிலைப்படுத்தும் பயிற்சிகள் உள்ளன. இவைகள் நோயின் தன்மைக்கும் நோயாளியின் தன்மைக்கும் ஏற்றவாறு பரிந்துரைக்கப்படுகின்றன.ஆற்றுப்படுத்துதல் (Counseling):மேற்கண்ட நிலைகளின் நோயாளியின் உடலையும் மனதையும் சரிசெய்த பிறகு அவர்களின் பிரச்சனைகளுக்குத் தக்கவாறு அவர்களை ஆற்றுப்படுத்துவது அவசியம்.இவ்வாறான படி நிலைகளில் மன நோய்களை சரிசெய்யும் போது முற்றிலுமாக அந்நோயிலிருந்து விடுபட முடியும்.மருத்துவ ஆலோசனைக்கு:Dr. ஜெரோம் சேவியர் B.S.M.S., M.Dசித்தமருத்துவ மையம்,டாக்டர்ஸ் பிளாசா,சரவணா ஸ்டோர் எதிரில்,வேளச்சேரி பேருந்து நிலையம் அருகில்,வேளச்சேரி, சென்னை.அலைபேசி எண்: 9444317293

Integrative Medicine - an Evidence Based Approach

Dr. Kshamashree Madle, Yoga and Naturopathy
WHO defines Health as not mere absence of Disease but complete, Social, Emotional, Mental and Spiritual well-being. Thus by definition, a Complete medical solution should encompass all aspects of life of a person. Integrative Medicine emphasizes the relationship between various systems of medicine and makes use of all appropriate therapies, both Conventional (Allopathic Medicine) and Traditional (e.g. Yoga, Naturopathy, Ayurveda, Nutrition etc.)National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) defines Integrative Medicine as – that which combines main stream medical therapies and CAM therapies for which there is some high quality scientific evidence of safety and effectiveness. Conventional medicine is often expensive and invasive but a preferred choice in acute care and surgical corrections. To fill the lacunae left by Conventional Medicine there is a need for another type of medicine that is a complete system of medicine in itself and can be complementary to Conventional Medicine. Traditional Medicine systems world over have now been in focus because of active research going on that now has provided enough evidence that it can act as a partner to Conventional Medicine in creating an Integrative Medicine eco-system. These traditional systems of medicines are closer to nature, affordable, less invasive and are proven to be more effective in chronic disease management. The basic criteria for choosing which system of medicine to integrate are:Evidence Backed in treatments for chronic ailmentsPossibility of Functional Integration of therapies based on what best therapies each system can bring rather that taking all therapies from one system aloneNon-Pharmacological, Less Invasive, more natural and use body’s own healing responseFocused on Prevention and Positive Promotion of Health than only curing a diseaseSystems of medicines which can be integrated with Conventional medicineMind body medicine such as YogaEnergy medicine such as AcupunctureHerbal medicine such as Ayurveda

14 Tips for Avoiding Overuse Strain Injuries

Dr. Vishwas Virmani, Physiotherapist
Here are 14 tips for avoiding overuse strain injuries.Up to 50% of industrial injuries are thought to be attributed to cumulative trauma or overuse injury. These can range from troublesome annoyances, to severe debilitation. For office, building and site managers, there are a number of steps you can take to minimise repetitive strain injury within your workforce.1. Identify and correct postural problems The aim is to eliminate fixed positions which impose static loads on the muscles of the back, neck, shoulders and arms. Poor or improperly-adjusted equipment, furniture or layout is often to blame.2. Identify and eliminate forceful movements The worst are those which involve fingers, hands and wrists, especially with bending or twisting. Check tools, knobs, processes, postures. Do things fit? Is maintenance happening?3. Identify and break up periods of repetitive work The aim is physical variety; use rest pauses and alternated tasks. Consult staff before introducing job rotation.4. Ensure that any tell-tale early-warning signs are noticed and acted upon Supervisors and staff alike will require (a) Training Induction trainingProduction of training videosStrain prevention: training seminars5. Educate supervisors in the recognition and correction of faulty workplace set-out and procedures They should then be accountable for managing this.6. Train staff to recognise and adjust their own workstations properly The benefits of “ergonomic” furniture may otherwise be lost. Be sure to include thorough instruction for all new staff.7. Identify and control work peaks These can be daily, weekly or even annually; individual work loads need monitoring.8. Know which staff are most vulnerable to overuse strain New staff (how thorough is your induction?); those returning from leave; jerky or tense workers; staff using hands and fingers a lot.9. Identify and control sources of individual pressures These may be related to work output requirements, to ‘pacing’ by workmates, to supervisors’ attitudes – or even personal problems. Financial need may push vulnerable staff into harmful overtime. Bonus systems are bad.10. Educate managers, engineers and designers in preventive measures Once they know about ergonomics, they should be able to apply it quickly.11. Carefully-selected tasks matched to individual needs (eg., as specified by a treating doctor) are essential. Close supervision is necessary.13. Keep close to people who are off work sick Letting people know you care about their welfare and recovery will help them a great deal. Weekly phone contact at least; have people come in to collect their pay, and keep them close to their workgroup.14. Keep close to treating doctors Let them know you’re keen to help. Ask them to give specific advice to assist even a partial return-to-work. Invite them to visit you.

Head Injuries: Causes and Treatments

Dr. Apoorva Kumar, Spine Surgeon
Head injuries are dangerous. They can lead to permanent disability, mental impairment, and even death. To most people, head injuries are considered an acceptable risk when engaging in sports and other types of recreational activities. But there are steps you can take to lower the risk and protect yourself and your children.What Are Head Injuries?Head injuries are injuries to the scalp, skull, or brain caused by trauma. Concussions are the most common type of sports-related brain injury with an estimated 1.6 million to 3.8 million sports-related concussions a year. A concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that happens when the brain is jarred or shaken hard enough to bounce against the skull. This can happen when two athletes collide or when someone falls and hits his or her head. It can also result from being hit in the head with a piece of sporting equipment. In a sport such as soccer, even "heading" the ball can cause a concussion. A concussion causes an alteration of a person's mental status and can disrupt the normal functioning of the brain. Multiple concussions can have a long-lasting, cumulative life-changing effect.You don't have to be hit in the head to experience a concussion. An impact elsewhere on the body can create enough force to jar the brain. You also won't necessarily lose consciousness with a concussion. Concussions range from mild to severe. The effects may be apparent immediately, or they may not show up until hours or even days later.Other types of TBIs are a contusion, which is a bruise on the brain that can cause swelling, and a hematoma, which is bleeding in the brain that collects and forms a clot. A skull fracture is another type of head injury that can affect the brain. Sometimes with a fracture, pieces of bone can cut into the brain and cause bleeding and other types of injury.In 2008, the following activities resulted in the highest number of head injuries for all ages:CyclingFootballBasketballBaseball and softball,Riding powered recreational vehicles such as dune buggies, go-carts, and mini bikesAccording to the Brain Injury Association of America, the five leading activities responsible for concussions in children and adolescents aged 5 to 18 years of age are:CyclingFootballBasketballPlayground activitiesSoccerWhat Are the Signs and Symptoms of a Brain Injury?Signs of a TBI include:ConfusionDepressionDizziness or balance problemsDouble or fuzzy visionFeeling foggy or groggyFeeling sluggish or tiredHeadacheMemory lossNauseaSensitivity to light or noiseSleep disturbanceTrouble concentratingTrouble rememberingIndications that a head injury is more serious than a concussion and requires emergency treatment include:Changes in size of pupilsClear or bloody fluid draining from the nose, mouth, or earsConvulsionsDistorted facial featuresFacial bruisingFracture in the skull or faceImpaired hearing, smell, taste, or visionInability to move one or more limbsIrritabilityLightheadednessLoss of consciousnessLow breathing rateRestlessness, clumsiness, or lack of coordinationSevere headacheSlurred speech or blurred visionStiff neck or vomitingSudden worsening of symptoms after initial improvementSwelling at the site of the injuryPersistent vomitingOther important safety measures include:Wear light-reflecting clothes when riding a bike at night.Don't dive in water less than 12 feet deep or any body of water where you cannot see the bottom, murky water.Make sure that children's play areas and equipment are safe and in good repair.Don't let children play sports that are inappropriate for their age.Supervise and teach children how to properly use sports equipment.Don't wear clothing that interferes with vision.Follow all rules at water parks and swimming pools.Don't skateboard or cycle on uneven or unpaved surfaces.Don't play sports when you are tired or very ill.