Articles on mental disability

Symptoms of Learning Disabilities in Children

Dr. Vykunta Raju K. N, Neurologist
DefinitionDisorder of one of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an impaired ability to listen, speak, spell, read, write, think (e.g. planning) or to do mathematical calculations (not due to mental retardation [MR] or sensory deficits [e.g impairment in hearing, vision etc].Common Elements in the Definitionsü  Brain dysfunctionü  Uneven growth pattern/psychological processing deficitsü  Discrepancy between potential and achievementExclusion of other causesTypes of Learning Disordersü  Dyslexia– Difficulty in reading ü  Dysgraphia– Difficulty in writingDyscalculia– Difficulty in mathematical abilitiesEtiology - Often genes + disorderTobaccoAlcoholHead InjuryOtherMales predominateFamilialUp to 5-10% of "seemingly normal" schoolchildren have this hidden disability. Dyslexia affects 80% of all those identified as learning-disabled. SpecificLD is now believed to be a result of functional problem with brain"wiring" rather than an anatomic problem and is genetically inherited.Preschool children Language delayPronunciation problems Slow in acquiring vocabulary Difficulty in rhyming words Trouble with learning numbers, alphabets, days of the week, colors and shapesSchool-going children             Presenting problems-more commonly with school performance-difficulty is in one particular subject Slow to learn the connection between letters and sounds Confuses basic words (run, eat, want) Makes consistent reading and spelling errorsTransposes number sequences &confuses arithmetic signs Poor spelling, slow reading Has difficulty in left right coordinationHas difficulty in tying shoe laces, organizing pencil box. Comprehension of these children is often superior to isolated decoding skills Reading Disorder(Dyslexia)  There is generally a combination of difficulties in the ability to compose written texts as evidenced by grammatical or punctuation errors within sentences, poor paragraph organization, multiple spelling errors, and excessively poor handwriting. This diagnosis is generally not given if there are only spelling errors or poor handwriting in the absence of other impairments in written expression.SlowComprehension defectsVocabulary limitationsLimited experienceFigure notations – complex and denseDirecting– dense, readability very high, in high distraction  positionSlowVocabulary limitationSpellingPunctuationOrganizationExperienceHandwriting– poor readabilityNote takingReading is very difficult ( + x )MultiplestepsPoor tool useSelf confidenceAnxietyWrittenOralEtiologyCourseFamilialCourseIQReadingrateStandardscoresComprehensionSpellingStandardscoreCan person read what they have writtenImpaired vision and hearing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD) Mental Retardation Pervasive Developmental Disorders Communication Disorder Lack of opportunity, poor teaching Normal variations in academic achievement Anxiety Poor studying skillsConsensus ClinicalCriteria (CCC) for Diagnosis of Learning Disorders -adapted from DSM IV-TRIQ85 or more No vision impairment No hearing impairment Presence of adequate opportunity for learning with proper motivation GLAD score below 40%, at two levels below the child’s current class level Difficulty in reading / writing / mathematics that significantly interferes with academic functioning.Along with GLAD, Bender Visuo-motor Gestalt Test will be used to assess motor coordinationOnset during infancy or childhoodMost show a delay or impairment in developing functions and most undergo a steady course. Outcome depends on the severity of the disability, the age or grade when remedial education is started, the length and continuity of treatment, presence or absence of associated emotional problems, and parental and school supports. With appropriate remedial education and provisions,most children with LD can be expected to achieve academic competence and complete their education in a regular mainstream school. However, some children may still be unable to cope up and need to continue their education in special schools.1. Management of Primary Problem Remediation and AccommodationBehavioural & Psychological treatmentAllowing extra time A separate quiet room for taking tests   Alternatives to multiple choice questions Providing access to syllabi and lecture notes Tutors ‘talk through’ and review the ‘content’ of reading material Tape recorders and recorded books Allowing use of computers with spell checkersCalculatorRead problemWordprocessingSpell checker (right-click)NotesPhotocopiesInstructor OutlinesNote takerFolder for each subjectWhere are the classesLibrary– contact personScheduleSupportServiceCourse load – start slowDisability certificate. Extra time to write examinations, grace marks, supplemental writer during their examinations and also the facility of integrated as well as inclusive education. TheNational Trust for the Welfare of Persons with Autism, Mental Retardation andMultiple Disability, 1999, recommends promotion of inclusive education. The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA, 2000), pledges to “ensure that every child with special needs, irrespective of the kind, category and degree of disability, is provided education in an appropriate environment".

Learning About Learning Disabilities

Geeva Kamal raj
WHAT IS LEARNING DISABILITY ?Learning disabilities is a broad term which might look very different from one child to another.One child may struggle with reading and spelling, while another loves books but can’t understand math.Still another child may have difficulty understanding what others are saying or communicating out loud.The problems are very different, but they are all learning disorderNOW YOU ARE PROBABLY WONDERING WHAT CAUSES LEARNING DISABILITYNot me nor the experts know what actually causes learning disabilities, however, some of the possible causes for Learning disabilities include;Heredity : Learning disabilities often run in the familyProblems during pregnancy and birth : illness or injury during or before birth, usage of drug and alcohol while pregnant, low birth weight, lack of oxygen, premature or prolonged labour.Incidents after birth: head injuries, nutritional deprivation, exposure to toxic substance such as lead.SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF LEARNING DISABILITYIt’s not always easy to identify learning disabilities. And because of all the wide variations, there is no single symptom or profile that you can look to as proof of a problem. However, some warning signs are more common than others at different ages. If you’re aware of what they are, you’ll be able to catch a learning disorder earlyPreschool signs and symptoms of learning disabilitiesProblems pronouncing wordsTrouble finding the right wordDifficulty rhymingTrouble learning the alphabet, numbers, colors, shapes, days of the weekDifficulty following directions or learning routinesDifficulty controlling crayons, pencils, and scissors or coloring within the linesTrouble with buttons, zippers, snaps, learning to tie shoesAges 5-9 signs and symptoms of learning disabilitiesTrouble learning the connection between letters and soundsUnable to blend sounds to make wordsConfuses basic words when readingConsistently misspells words and makes frequent reading errorsTrouble learning basic math conceptsDifficulty telling time and remembering sequencesSlow to learn new skillsAges 10-13 signs and symptoms of learning disabilitiesDifficulty with reading comprehension or math skillsTrouble with open-ended test questions and word problemsDislikes reading and writing; avoids reading aloudSpells the same word differently in a single documentPoor organizational skills (bedroom, homework, desk is messy and disorganized)Trouble following classroom discussions and expressing thoughts aloudPoor handwritingThe earlier detected…The better :)Until next time….Love, prayers and good vibes!

Child Care: How to Help Your Child With a Learning Disability

Dr. Satish Erra, Homeopath
How to help your child with a learning disability:-Parents sit with their children while they do their homework, sometimes for hours.Between 4 or 5 percent of the population have one or more learning disabilities. This condition affects the way they take in, retain and express information. Having a learning disability can be frustrating for everyone involved.With proper diagnosis, modification of learning strategies, and a lot of patience and hard work, these challenges can be overcome. Frustration can be replaced with a new way of learning. There is hope.It is important to know what types of learning disabilities exist in order to determine if your child has a learning disability. Learning disabilities can run in families. If one member of your family has a diagnosed learning disability, there is a greater chance that other family members could have one as well.It is important to remember that a person with a learning disability has average or above average intelligence. They are not, however, able to achieve their academic potential without modification and accommodation in the learning environment.Since every person with a learning disability is unique, it is impossible to paint a static picture of every scenario. There are traits common to many people with learning disabilities.Common learning disabilities include challenges in one or more of the following areas:Oral or spoken languageMathematicsWritten languageLogical reasoning and memoryLearning does not need to be traditional to be successful. As you can see, there are a wide range of areas where a person may have difficulties learning. There are also a broad range of options for educationMany parents choose to keep their children in public schools. Many schools provide alternate learning strategies both inside and outside the classroom. Some parents, given their financial resources, choose private school.Because public education in the United States has a fairly structured framework, some parents choose to home school. When deciding to home school your child, make sure to find support from other parents using home education for their children with learning disabilities. This may or may not be the best option for your family.Working closely with your child can be challenging. But it can also provide insight into how they process information. You can gain a greater understanding of their mind and how it works.Your child is more than a diagnosis. When your child has a disability of any sort, it is easy to let the disability define the individual. This is especially true immediately following diagnosis. Try to avoid this. The disability is merely a part of who your child is.Learning may take more time. Since children with a learning disability are, by definition, functioning at average or above average intelligence, they may become frustrated with their own performance. Remind your child, their teacher and yourself that mastering material is not a race.The process of learning is as important as the goal. Remembering this can make the days go more smoothly. Be aware that some individuals become frustrated with their progress and are more prone to depression, or other similar mental health concerns.You are not alone. There are many prominent and successful people with learning disabilities. Telling your child about them can provide them a role model to look to when they are frustrated.If you suspect that your child has a learning disability, educate yourself. Be creative with your solutions and be patient with the progress your child makes. Children with learning disabilities are regular kids, they just need the right tools to help them succeed.

7 Steps You Can Take for Mental Well-Being

Akshata Bhat, Psychiatrist
Take care of yourselfAs simple as it may sound, the mere act of taking care of you is the first step to good mental health. Eat healthy, exercise and get adequate sleep every day. These are the building blocks to good physical health, which translate into mental well-being.Prioritize It is not possible to do everything. The constant effort to do so creates unrealistic expectations. It eventually results in disappointment. Life is too short to waste on unnecessary things, so figure out what your priorities are and focus on them.Invest in yourselfEnvision yourself as a company set up and funded by you. Whatever you invest, you will get the returns accordingly. Give yourself the best; whether it is moral support, top notch grooming or courses to equip you with skills in the field of your choice. Hold nothing back when it comes to you.Let it goHolding on to anything, be it anger, pain, jealousy, failing relationships, dead end jobs or toxic friends will only bring you unhappiness. Let it go. Cut the cord. Break the cycle. Letting go will make you receptive to newer and better opportunities in your life.Take a breakGetting caught up in the daily grind leave you with little time for yourself. Your mind and body need to recharge from time to time. Take time out for yourself everyday to do something you enjoy. ‘Me’ time will help you relax, and motivate you to meet your daily challenges.Be ridiculousLaughing helps to reduce stress and is an instant mood elevator. Having a good sense of humor helps you see the bright side in difficult situations. It makes you optimistic and hopeful. Humor is also a very attractive quality, and it will draw people towards you.Ask for helpOften people feel that asking for help is a sign of weakness; or that by doing so, it lowers your prestige. Thus, even in very tough times, we tend not to ask for help and try to handle everything by ourselves. The truth is that it takes immense courage to admit that you need help, and there is nothing wrong in asking for it.

Today Is Mental Health day.use Intuitions and 6th Sense.

Dr. Neelam Nath Bhatia, General Physician
There is No person with 100% correct mental /physical health. Every test carried out in blood has a range. A person is labeled diseased only if the limits exceed normal range or fall below the rangeThere are 3 types of personalities according to Ayurveda.Type A is like Air , Flighty ,always on the go , multitasking ,and result oriented. Type A need not be physically active all the time to achieve their goals. A racing mind is also associated with type A personality. Creative people ,leaders , intellectuals are Type A and the world is dependent on Type A types because They are the Leaders.Type B is like Water, flowy but slowly , working but without much strain on body or mind & We can call them Cool !Type C is like Earth , steady, accepting , not keen or adventerous ,dependent ,ready to please or get pleased.It is a colorful world consisting of all of the 3 types of people.Be Careful of manipulative people who can read the mind and trap the person , knowing well his/her vulnerabilities , exploit them and label the supposedly 'weak ' person as Mad.Remember the programme- Kamzor Kadi Kaun ? ( Who is the Weakest in the link ?)Bottled up Stress can make any normal human behave like Mad.Every Mental Illness does not require Medicines . A good counsellor can do a wonderful job.Who is a good counsellor? An MD doctor, An MA Psychology or an elder in the family or a close friend?It can be any of the above. I am sure one retains some of 6th sense / intuition to know about whom to confide without getting exploited More to get really Mad.Stay away from medicines for anxiety if possible.If none of the above is available as in our country Mental Disease is still a tag , unlike other physical diseases like heart and lung disease or the ones the person is borne with.Start writing a diary about positives and negatives that has happened in life so far. Write a page daily. It is like cleansing our souls. Give a pat to self for good job done daily and a slap for being bad and nasty.One has to maintain both Physical and Mental Health & we take care of physical health by going for a walk /exercising /eating the right food etc. Similarly Mental Health needs to be Protected by each one of us through our own ways.Know yourself before knowing others and analyse self before being Judgemental.Social isolation can increase the risk of both cardiac and mental illness and sometimes it can be a Deliberate attempt to Isolate Seniors of family for Selfish purposes. Do Not Yield in. Remain connected with like minded people and do contribute to society like volunteering,mentoring,joining a civic club or scheduling outings with friends.Medicines should be the last resort of cure of mental disease for a person of any age, a mother can read her child and analyse the demands,adult child of same mother can be able to read the mind of mother. Never mind if child is settled well far away.Dementia or forgetfulness are 1st stages of routine mental illnesses and these are preventable by just doing simple Self Analysis.

Brain Development In Kids And The Importance Of Monitoring It!

Dr. Vykunta Raju K. N, Neurologist
What is Child Neurology?Child Neurology focuses on the issues concerning the development and maturation of the nervous system(brain and spinal cord) and disease affecting the nervous system in children upto 18 years of age.What is the need and scope for monitoring the development of children?There is a normal variation in achieving milestones in different children who are otherwise normal. Hence there is a need to detect the “abnormal from the normal” early so that appropriate investigations can be done for detecting cause and institute early treatment or interventions.What is developmental screening?Developmental screening is a procedure designed to identify children who should receive more intensive assessment for detecting potential delays.What is developmental surveillance?Child development is a dynamic process and difficult to quantitate by a one-time assessment. During surveillance repeated observations on development are made by a skilled caregiver over time to see the rate and pattern of development.What are birth defects?Birth defects are abnormalities of structure, function or metabolism (body chemistry) present at birth (congenital) that results in physical or mental disability.What causes birth defects?Birth defects can be caused by defective gene function, pregnancy related problems like intra uterine infections, uncontrolled diabetes and exposure to certain drugs, alcohol,chemicals or toxins during pregnancy.What are the consequences of these birth defects?Birth defects can cause either physical defects or developmental disabilities.What are neural tube defects?Neural tube defects are birth defects related to the growth and development of the brain and spinal cord. It includes conditions like spina bifida, in which the membranes around the spinal cord don’t close properly and a part of the spinal cord comes out through the defect (myelomeningocoele). People with spina bifida may have problems with walking and controlling urination and passing stools. What are the developmental disabilities caused by the birth defects?Developmental disabilities caused by birth defects are those that cause lifelong problems with how a body part or system works. They affect the brain, spinal cord and nervous system functioning causing mental retardation, learning and behavioral disorders and certain degenerative disorders like Rett syndrome and Adrenoleucodystrophy. Some of them might become apparent only when children are grown older.How are children with developmental disabilities managed?The management of children with developmental disabilities revolves around screening and early detection of the disability, finding the cause of the disability by appropriate imaging, metabolic genetic and neuro-electro physiological tests as required.Is there a cure for these developmental disabilities?Though a majority of the developmental disabilities have no cure, it is possible to prevent the progression and limit the disabilities by appropriate treatment strategies.Physical, speech and occupational therapy, special education classes and psychological counseling can also help.What are the causes for fits in children?In majority of cases,the cause is not clear, the so called idiopathic epilepsies. These are more common in childhood and adolescence and some of them may run in families.Injury to the brain during birth and development derangements of brain are two important known causes for fits in children. Febrile fits is special situation in children between 6 months and 6 years of age, where children gets fits during episodes of fever.What is the treatment of fits?In case an under lying cause of seizures is detected, appropriate treatment for the cause is initiated. In majority of cases, anti epileptic medications can control the seizures effectively. A small proportion of children continue to have uncontrolled seizures despite the best medical treatment, in whom surgical treatment may be tried.What is Cerebral Palsy (CP)?Cerebral Palsy is primarily a disorder affecting the movements and actions performed by various muscles of the body (motor disorder). Though described as non progressive the disability (due to the damage sustained at a time during early childhood) can progress.How is CP managed?The management of CP revolves around the management of associated conditions (like seizures, mental sub-normality, visual and hearing loss) prevent the progression of disability and rehabilitation.Who does the CP management team consist of?The CP management team consists of a pediatric neurologist, developmental pediatrician,physiotherapist, a child psychologist, orthopedic surgeon, speech therapist,occupational therapist and a social worker. The neurologist coordinates the functioning of the tam and is primarily involved in diagnosis, assessing development and disability. Control of fits if any and determining the need for any interventions-medicines, surgery or otherwise.What are the other causes of motor disability in children?The muscle diseases like myopathies and muscular dystrophies constitute a major cause for motor disability in children. The aim of management of these children is towards diagnosis, reducing disability, rehabilitation and in some cases genetic counseling.How can a child with a muscle disease diagnosed and managed?The diagnosis of the muscle disease is based on the careful assessment of the child,electro physiological investigations like NCS, EMG, blood enzyme analysis,muscle biopsy and genetic studies. The parents of such a child need to be counseled at the possibility of having another child with a similar illness and how to prevent the same (genetic counseling).Finally why child neurology?Children are not miniature adults. They are growing and maturing. The physiology and hence the way they react to disease processes is different from adults. Hence children with neurological problems need attention by child neurologist.

Mental illness, Time to Talk About It!

Dr. Anamay K. Bidwai, General Physician
Today is mental illness day.Incidences of mental illness are going up in India, a recent study shows that every fourth Indian might be having some symptom or might have had some symptoms like depression, anxiety, panic attacks, phobias etc.The reason for increase in the number of patients with mental illness is change in life style, increasing day to day stress, break down of joint family structure resulting in less moral support.Another reason is increasing awareness about mental illness, more and more people are coming out to get treated, more and more are being diagnosed, so those who were hiding their disease and suffering in silence are now getting treatment and enjoying better quality of life.Mental illness has been the taboo associated with it, time has come that we understand that brain too is an organ like any other organ like heart, liver or kidney.So if heart, liver, kidney can develop malfunction why not brain? Like other organs brain too might have some problem, like heart, liver, kidney diseases, even brain can be treated with medicines and other measures.There is nothing wrong if you have depression or anxiety, talk to your family members or close friends about it, see a psychiatrist, if you neglect your problem it will only increase with time.There was a time when any one who went to a psychiatrist was considered " pagal" or " mad", it is not so any more, we must remove the taboo created around mental illness and accept it as any other health issue.Many great people who had mental health issues like schizophrenia, dyslexia, autism, bipolar disorder, organic depression have gone on to win noble prizes, have made great inventions, gone to become heads of states, all this because they got treated in time, used their will power to come over the problem and made best use of their potential.If you suffer from loss of sleep, unexplained loss of weight, loss of apatite, urge to remain alone all time, loss of interest in work, loss of interest in sex, mood swings, anxiety of going to crowded places, lethargy, unwillingness to meet new people, you must see a doctor and seek advice.It is always very important to have a person with you during the steps of treatment, it may be your wife, mother, father, close friend or some one you trust. Today, lets resolve  not to treat mental illness as taboo, lets open up and understand that a person with mental illness can be treated, with treatment he/she can enjoy a good quality of life and contribute positively to family and community.

What Is Cerebral Palsy? Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Dr. Vykunta Raju K. N, Neurologist
What is Cerebral Palsy (CP)?Cerebral Palsy is primarily a disorder affecting the movements and actions performed by various muscles of the body (motor disorder). Though described as non progressive the disability (due to the damage sustained at a time during early childhood) can progress.How common is CP?Most place the prevalence around 2 per1000 children. In India, no absolute figures are available, but estimated children affected (based on hospital records) are over 2.5 millions.How do you recognize C.P.?§ The hall mark of the condition is motor dysfunction, i.e. there is abnormal muscle tone, abnormal posture and movement§ As the child grows, the movement disorder can appear worse because every effort to move is confronted by the force of gravity§ The clinical expression of the child depends on the extent and area of brain damage, growth of the child, coexisting developmental problemsWhy is it important to know about CP?§ Ignorance about the problem often causes more problems for a person with C.P. than the condition itself.§ Actually a child with C.P. is not hopeless§ Half the children with C.P. have average or above average I.Q.§ With timely help and proper guidance a vast majority can lead active, self supporting and long livesEarly diagnosis of CPWarning symptoms§ Lack of alertness§ Increased abnormal movements, Fits§ Feeding problems, drooling§ Poor quality of sleepAbnormal signs§ Reduced head size or fall in its growth§ Delayed social smile§ Poor head control present at 3 months of age§ Delayed appearance of developmental milestones§ Constant fisting after 2 months of age§ Increased tone, scissoring or assumption of equinus position of feet§ Eye problems: roving eyes, no visual following, persistent squint§ Lack of response to soundConditions that mimic CP§ Birth defects-neural tube defects, vertebral instability etc.§ Slowly progressive degenerative brain disorders e.g. metabolic disorders - amino aciduri as like glutaric acidemia type I, peroxisomal disorders, mitochondrial disorders§ Neuromuscular disorders e.g. muscular dystrophies.In all cases where the diagnosis is in doubt, further follow-up and diagnostic evaluation may be required.Role of investigationsDiagnosis of CP is essentially clinicalü Laboratory tests are not necessary to confirm diagnosisü Brain imaging studies including Ultrasound scan of brain, CT and MRI may be useful in elucidating the cause of cerebral palsy and suggesting a long term outcome.ü Ultrasounds can head is easily available in most health centers and is useful to detect bleeding and periventricular leucomalacia in preterm babies.ü CT and MRI - to detect / diagnose other diseases that may be confused with CP e.g. slow degenerations, birth defects etc.Eye and hearing assessmentü  Always screen systematically for visual and auditory problems even if they may not be clinically apparentMANAGEMENTBenefits of early interventionü  Anatomical - Maintains soft tissue extensibility, optimises musculoskeletal growth and developmentü  Physiological - Early visual and sensory inputs optimize movement, posture and balanceü  Developmental - Reinforces positive developmental patternsü  Reduces cost of treatment, minimizes complications and mitigates need for adaptive equipmentWho does the CP management team consist of?Multidisciplinary approachThe CP management team consists of a Child neurologist, developmental pediatrician, physiotherapist, a child psychologist, orthopedic surgeon, speech therapist, occupational therapist and a social worker. The neurologist coordinates the functioning of the team and is primarily involved in diagnosis, assessing development and disability. Control of fits if any and determining the need for any interventions-medicines, surgery or otherwise.How is CP managed?The management of CP revolves around the management of associated conditions (like fits, mental subnormality, visual and hearing loss) prevent the progression of disability and rehabilitation.Counseling: A physician should have an elementary idea of all the modalities required for holistic management.Physiotherapy and motor trainingPhysiotherapy should be directed towards:ü  Specific training of actions such as sitting, standing, walking and steppingü  Exercises designed to increase muscle strengthü  Prevention of contracturesü  Control of movementTraining in activities of daily livingManagement of feeding difficultiesü  Usea shallow spoon, soft foods.ü  Place the food on the middle of tongueü  Give small pieces of solid foodü  If needs help to keep mouth closed when chewing, apply pressure to jaw to keep it closedü  Drooling can be minimized by improving swallowing, drugs not very effectiveEarly developmental stimulationBasic principles areü  Follow  general principles of normal developmentü  Attempt to break the primitive reflexes as they interfere with attainment of normal milestonesEducational problemsü  Children with mild CP do well in mainstream schoolsü  Most children with moderate to severe cerebral palsy need to be educated in special schools.Eye problemsü  Check for refractive error, advice eye exercisesCommunication problemsü  Encourage child to speak. Guidance from speech therapist can help improve speech patternsFITSü  Management is same as for other children with fitsü  However,a larger proportion of children with CP may have refractory fits or require drug therapy for prolonged periods. Avoid phenobarbitone.Counseling of the familyThe doctor should emphasize that CP is:ü  Not a mental illnessü  Not necessarily associated with mental retardationü  Not contagiousü  Not inherited (except in rare cases)ü  Not curable but treatment aims at minimizing disability to improve their quality of life.Aim of the schools is not to admit them and segregate them from their family and peer groups but to provide an insight and train the parents and school teachers about the special needs of these children and their strength and weakness.Social awarenessü  All CP children do not have low IQ and least 1/3rd have average 1Qü  They are not a burden on the society and can contribute activelyLegislature – passed on 22nd December,1995 – disability bill for equal opportunities.ü  Equal opportunities, protection ofrights and full participation. As per this act the government and local authorities shall ensure that every child with disability has access to free and adequate education till the age of 18, integrate students with disabilities into normal schools, set up special school, for those in need of special educationü  Employment – posts are identified for disabled personsü  Non-discriminationü  The government shall within economic limits, undertake rehabilitation programs for persons with disabilities

How Exercise Prevents Dementia and Alzheimer's

Ms. Swati Kapoor, Dietitian/Nutritionist
Leading a physically active lifestyle helps you live a longer and healthier life.Researchers from the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada, claim that dementia sufferers benefit greatly from regular exercise, demonstrating improvements in cognitive functioning and their ability to perform daily activities.Dementia is an umbrella term that covers a range of cognitive disorders characterized by memory loss and changes in personality. Since vascular dementia is the second most common form of dementia (after Alzheimer's disease), by reducing the risk of cerebro-vascular disease it is possible to reduce the risk of dementia.Some studies say Alzheimer's and other dementias may be caused by high blood pressure, since it can cause blood vessel damage through constriction.Physical exercises help in maintaining good blood cholesterol levels, healthy body weight and normal blood pressure, all of which indirectly help in lowering the risk of developing dementia. An active lifestyle can almost halve the risk of dementia, compared to a sedentary lifestyle. The effect of physical activity is not limited to vascular effects. For instance, exercise can give rise to new neuron in the brain, as well as release a substance that protects the brain. Exercise is beneficial for physical and mental health and can help to improve the quality of life for people in all stages of dementia. It includes a wide range of physical activities from walking across the room to gardening to high-intensity workouts.Exercise helps to improve cognition. Recent studies have shown that exercise may improve memory and slow down mental decline and even improves strength and balance, which helps to counteract the fear of falling.A healthy lifestyle includes physical activity as part of a daily routine which will help to maintain well-being for as long as possible. Physical activity creates valuable opportunities to socialize with others and can help improve and maintain a person's independence, which is beneficial both to people with dementia and their caregivers.Every person is unique and will have different levels of ability and certain specific physical activities that they enjoy.Even though dementia is common among the elderly, make exercise a regular part of your life, irrespective of your age and mental health.