Every individual has a normal liver, which is soft, smooth with normal functions. When Hepatitis B infection occurs, the liver starts getting small, nodular and turns into cirrhosis in some cases. This virus enters body like HIV virus that is through blood and unprotected sexual intercourse. For most of the cases, it is in inactive stage. One only identifies it in routine check-up and has no problems with it and require screening regularly.

Some cases are accompanied by symptoms like abdominal fullness (water in stomach), swelling of feet (pedal edema) and jaundice.

Important tests are ultrasound of abdomen, liver function tests, viral load in the blood and Gastroscopy (endoscope) to see the esophageal veins. Some may have excessive bleeding from mouth and vomiting of blood, and this can be controlled with endoscopy.

There are preventive measures like Hepatitis-B Vaccination. Health workers, nurses,doctors and relatives of patients who are prone to get such infection should be protected with vaccination. Various treatment option are available for Hepatitis-B like oral drugs like Lamuvudine, Entacavir. There is always a high risk of developing cancer of liver in patient with cirrhosis sec to hepatitis-B which should be monitored with alpha feto protein level in blood.

Effective awareness and treatment of Hepatitis-B related conditions would significantly reduce the global burden of chronic liver disease.