Hyper pigmentation is divided into two types:

1. Dermal

2. Epidermal 

- Epidermal pigmentation is a pigmentation present in upper layer of the skin which includes dark brown to black pigmentation present over the face or body.

- Eg. Melasma, Freckles, post inflammatory pigmentation like acne and chickenpox.

- Dermal pigmentation is present in the deeper into the skin, morphology includes blue to green              pigmentation.

Eg. Birthmark, Mongolian spot, nevs of oto, drug eruption. Dermal pigmentation is difficult to treat.


There are different methods to treat pigmentation.

1. Topical treatment: 

- It includes skin lightening agents like hydroquinone, licorice extract, glycolic acid, arginine, azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoic acid, etc.

2. Chemical peeling:

- It works by exfoliating the skin and helps even out the skin. It makes the skin smoother, glowing and improve          the texture.

- Eg. Vitamin c peel, kojic acid, glycolic acid, salicylic acid and yellow peel.

3. Laser:  

 Laser treatment uses targeted beams of light to reduce hyperpigmentation.

 - It helps to remove layer of skin, Promotes growth of collagen and tightening effect.

4. Intense Pulse Light:

- It is non laser treatment. It helps to reduce hyperpigmentation, wrinkles, enlarged pores. 

5. Micro dermabrasion:

 - It helps in reduce hyper pigmentation and also scarring.  

Medium skin tones may find the following options helpful:

- Chemical peels 

- Microdermabrasion 

- Darker skin might benefit from:

- Glycolic acid

- Kojic acid 

- OTC lightening creams

- Microdermabrasion

- Lower-strength chemical peels 

- Laser treatments, but only when used at lower intensities over a larger number of sessions 

- Topical treatments generally take longer to produce visible results. Patience is the key with any treatment option.