The two most common conditions that affect the human skeleton are Osteoporosis and Arthritis.
1. Osteoporosis means increased fragility or porosity of bones, leading to fractures of the bones, with minor trauma. It is much more common in females than in males. Females are more prone to Osteoporosis after their natural or surgical (after hysterectomy) menopause, as the protective Estrogen hormone is not produced in the body.
2. Arthritis is a disease of joints, where due to either aging process, a disease or an injury the joint gets damaged and the smooth surface of joint (articular cartilage) gets roughened and eroded. It leads to uncovering of the underlying bone, which rubs against each other, causing pain, swelling, and deformity in the affected joints. Knee pain is the most common, followed by the spine, shoulder and hip pain.
However, any joint of the body can be affected. Indian population seems to be genetically more predisposed to Orthopaedic problems such as Osteoarthritis and Osteoporosis. Lack of exercise, sedentary lifestyles and unhealthy diet are also responsible for making our bones weaker and more susceptible to fractures, deformities and abnormal loading of the joints. Our customs of sitting on the ground and using Indian types of toilets is also responsible for exacerbating the existing knee pain.
Osteoarthritis (OA) has been reported to be the second most common Rheumatologic problem. It is the most frequent joint disease, which is found in 22% to 39% population of India. It is more commonly seen in women than in men and its occurrence increases with an increasing age. Nearly, half of the population above the age of 65 years have symptoms, and the x-ray evidence of OA is present in 70% of individuals above 65 years of age.