Hypothyroidism: Symptoms and Treatment


In this article we will look at:

You can click on any of the links above to navigate to the section of your interest.

What is hypothyroidism?

Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the body’s thyroid gland is underactive. Meaning, the thyroid gland fails to produce enough of the thyroid hormones, Triiodothyronine (T3), and Thyroxine (T4).

The hormones produced by the thyroid gland affect the metabolism of the body. The hormones in general control how energy is used in your body and the resulting rate at which the different organs function in your body.
 The classic symptoms of hypothyroidism are fatigue, a hoarse voice, weight gain, constipation, pain in the joints, thinning hair, joint aches, muscle stiffness, dry skin, and increased sensitivity to cold. You need to consult your family physician or a general physician immediately for a diagnosis. If you are diagnosed of hypothyroidism, your physician should be able to treat and monitor your condition. You can also meet an endocrinologist for the management of hypothyroidism. However, if your symptoms are more aggressive, he may refer you to an endocrinologist for specialized treatment.

How does hypothyroidism occur?

The thyroid gland is situated in front of the neck, below the voice box (larynx). It is a butterfly-shaped organ which has two lobes. The two lobes are on either side of the windpipe connected by a thin bridge (isthmus) of thyroid tissue.

The thyroid gland is a part of the endocrine system of the body, which consists of a collection of glands in the body and the hormones produced by those glands.

The hypothalamus located in the brain directly controls the production of thyroid hormone through the pituitary gland. It produces the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which signals the pituitary gland to release a hormone called thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The TSH hormone released by the pituitary gland, in turn, signals the thyroid gland to produce the T3 or T4 hormones. If more T3 or T4 hormones are required, the pituitary gland produces more TSH and if the T3 and T4 levels are already high in the body, the pituitary gland releases less TSH.

Hypothyroidism occurs when the production of T3 and T4 hormones by the thyroid gland is too less for the body. This can slow down your metabolism, and growth rate.

Hypothyroidism may sometimes also lead to depression.

Who is prone to hypothyroidism?

Some people such as the following are more prone to hypothyroidism than others such as:

  • people with a family history of hypothyroidism
  • people with previous history of thyroid problems
  • older people as the risk increases with age
  • women
  • people suffering from autoimmune disorders such as Diabetes Type 1, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease, Addison's disease, pernicious anemia, or vitiligo
  • people with down syndrome
  • people with Turner syndrome
  • people with bipolar disorder

What is the cause of hypothyroidism?

Hypothyroidism can be caused by a number of factors such as:

  • Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis: This is a condition in which the thyroid gland gets inflamed. Also known as Thyroiditis, this occurs when the body’s immune system attacks the thyroid gland and destroys it.
  • Iodine Deficiency: The thyroid gland needs iodine to be able to produce T3 and T4 hormones. Since our bodies do not produce iodine, we are dependent on the foods we consume to provide the required amount of iodine to the body. Foods that are rich in iodine include milk and milk-based products, saltwater fishes, eggs, bananas, yoghurt, strawberries, cranberries, green beans, and white bread.
  • Pregnancy: During pregnancy, some women tend to develop an inflamed thyroid. This condition is also known as postpartum thyroiditis. Though the cause for it is unknown, after a certain time span, the thyroid hormone levels return to normal in these women.
  • Radiation Therapy: Radiation given to the thyroid gland can reduce its production of hormones.
  • Certain medications: Some medicines can interfere with normal production of thyroid hormone. Lithium, for example, is one of the most common medicines that causes hypothyroidism.
  • Growths in the thyroid: Thyroid nodules are abnormal overgrowths of tissue in the thyroid gland that are most often benign—but may be cancerous in some people. There are a few disorders that can cause these growths an example of which is the autoimmune disorder known as sarcoidosis. In sarcoidosis, inflamed tissue forms throughout the body. The inflamed tissue replaces the healthy thyroid tissue, which results in inhibiting thyroid hormone production. As a result, hypothyroidism occurs.
  • Genetic Causes: Damaged genes can also cause hypothyroidism. The causes are generally detected during infancy.
  • Problem With The Hypothalamus: Hypothalamic dysfunction caused by surgery, traumatic brain injury, tumours, and radiation can, in turn, can cause hypothyroidism. The hypothalamus controls the pituitary gland, which in turn controls the thyroid gland among others. Therefore, any abnormality in the hypothalamus can cause the thyroid gland to dysfunction.
  • Pituitary Gland Disorder: The pituitary gland turn controls the thyroid gland among others. Therefore, any abnormal functioning of the pituitary gland affects the thyroid gland.

What are the symptoms of hypothyroidism? How is hypothyroidism diagnosed?

The symptoms or signs of hypothyroidism include:


A general practitioner can diagnose and treat hypothyroidism. For severe cases, an endocrinologist (a doctor who specializes in the endocrine system, which includes the body’s hormone-secreting glands, such as the thyroid) can be consulted.

Hypothyroidism can be detected by specific blood tests, i.e.TSH  and T4 (thyroxine) Test.

What are the complications of hypothyroidism?

The complications of hypothyroidism include:

  • Rapid ageing
  • Dry skin and wrinkles
  • Prematurely greying hair
  • Infertility in women
  • Cardiac complications
  • Nerve damage
  • Renal complications
  • Pregnancy-related complications
  • Myxedema (a life-threatening form of hypothyroidism which can cause death)
  • Obesity

What is the treatment of hypothyroidism?

Medical Treatment

Your doctor will prescribe certain medications which will help reduce your hypothyroidism symptoms. He may also suggest some supplements as well changes in the diet.


Following the right exercise regimen can help reduce your hypothyroidism symptoms.

Performing low-impact aerobic exercises can get your heart rate up and your lungs going without putting too much pressure on your joints. This is important because joint pain is a common hypothyroidism symptom.

Strength training exercises such as lunges, leg raises, and push-ups or those involving weight-training machines can build muscle mass, and muscle burns more calories than fat, even when you're at rest. Building muscle can help counter possible weight gain from an underactive thyroid.

Pilates or gentle yoga can improve your core muscles and ease back and hip pain associated with hypothyroidism.

Walking is an immensely beneficial exercise as well.

Would you like to consult a doctor for Hypothyroidism ?

Patient Experiences

Amit kumar
Remarkable Improvement in Hypothyroidism
During a routinr test my TSH was detected very very low along with very high T3 and T4. I was told by Lap assistent that I am suffering from thyroid problem. My family Dr. Suggested me to go for treatment at INMAS, DRDO. While searching details of INMAS I came to know about Maj Gen Dr J K Bansal and who was formally head of Thyroidology at INMAS. I took appointment to meet him at his Vasant Kunj Clinic. Dr J K bansal saw all my reports, physicaly checked me with some medical apparatus and asked few questions. Without no time he diagonosed that I am suffering from Grave disease. He gave me few medicine and suggested me to meet him after one month with few test results. I am in his treatment since last one year and in last one year I meet him only thrice and regularly take medicine doses suggusted by him, I am very happy to share that my thyroid problem has remarkable improvement and the problem is almost vanished. I will say that Dr J K bansal has great experience in treating Thyroid problems. He is a gentleman who listen all my concerns patiently and provide me correct advice and direction. I recommend him strongly....Read Less
Doctor in this story :Dr. (Maj Gen) JK Bansal
Thyroid Clinic
Manjula Shikhare
Successful Treatment of Hypothyroidism
Hello, I was suffering due to Hypothyroid since last 8 years. I was taking high doses for hormonal support but problems were continued. Then I saw TV programme of Dr.Vikrant Patil . He told very good information in the programme hence I decided to meet him. I still remember my first visit to Dr.Vikrant. ****** ** ** * **** ******** ****** *** he talked so politely to me. He explained the whole mechanism and assured me.Then I took Vaman procedure in his clinic and I get a very good result. The treatment helped me to reduce my weight, my irritation also reduced,my weakness problem was reduced. Also staff was so polite and quick for service. Thanks to Dr.Vikrant Patil ...Read Less
Doctor in this story :Dr. Sushama Patil
The Ayurvedic T.H.Y.R.O.I.D. Clinic
Ambili Balan
High Blood Pressure and Hypothyroidism
Its been a month, to be precise from 5th January 2017, that I have been coming to Dr. Laxman Jonwals Hospital for my various ailments being High blood pressure followed by Hypothyroid. I had been taking Homeopathy for Thyroid for the the past 3 years. But my condition had not improved at all. With Dr Jonwals NAP Medicine treatment my Blood pressure & my Palpitation is under control, bloating in my tummy has reduced to a lot of extent. Thanks Dr. Laxman Jonwal for helping me out & all the best.☺...Read Less
Doctor in this story :Dr. Laxman G. Jonwal
Dr Jonwal's Niramay Ayush Panchkarm Health Institute & Research Hospital

Questions answered by trusted doctors

Verified User
Hi,,, Iam suffering from hypothyroidism pls help me out i need to get treatment for that,, iam too skinny,, iam not getting fat only,, pls suggest
Dr. Chethan R S
General Physician, Bangalore
Hi..., In hypothyroidism, T4 is low and TSH is high. This means the pituitary is sending more TSH to stimulate the thyroid, but the thyroid does not respond. A low TSH indicates the pituitary may be the cause of hypothyroidism.... A common treatment is to replace thyroxine with a specific synthetic thyroid hormone (levothyroxine)....but determining the right dosage often takes time. ...Consult Endocrinologist....
Verified User
I have been detected with hypothyroidism since 5yeras.recently had a baby boy. How much concentration of levothyroxine should I go for
Dr. Nikhil Prabhu
Diabetologist, Mumbai
Levothyroxine suppliment dose depends on TSH level and your weight. After delivery normally levothyroxine requirement falls a bit and dose is normally reduced.
Ask health queries and get free answers from doctors in 24 hrs

Did you know?

42 Million in India suffer from thyroid problems

Approximately 42 million people in India suffer from thyroid diseases.

Women Are More Prone

Hypothyroidism is about eight to 10 times less common in men than in women. It is an autoimmune disorder which are more common among women.

Older People Are More Prone

Hypothyroidism affects 10.95% of the studied population in India.The older population (above the age of 35 years) are at a higher risk of hypothyroidism than the younger population.

Related videos

Related articles

Rhinoplasty in India

Rhinoplasty is known as nose job. It is a plastic surgery which helps in reconstructing and correcting the shape of the nose. Reconstructive surgery and Cosmetic surgery are the two types. Nose job helps in improving the appearance of the nose.

Dialysis in India

Dialysis is a procedure in which the blood is filtered mechanically without the help of the kidneys. If the kidneys are not functioning properly then Dialysis will take over the function of the failed kidneys.

Cancer Treatment in India

The treatment method of using various treatments like chemotherapy, radiation, anti-cancer drugs to either cure, treat, control, or reduce the symptoms of any types of cancer can be grouped together as cancer treatments.

Home Remedies

Take Coconut Oil

Coconut oil contains medium-chain fatty acids which helps to improve thyroid functioning. You can also add two tablespoons of coconut oil to milk or to your smoothies and drink it.

Take Apple Cider Vinegar

Add two tablespoons of organic apple cider vinegar to a glass of warm water. Mix in a little honey. Drink this solution everyday once everyday. It is believed that apple cider vinegar helps regulate hormones.

Take Fish Oil Supplements

Fish oil is considered to be good for maintaining healthy thyroid function. Consult your doctor and take fish oil supplements.

Ginger Intake

Ginger is a rich source of zinc, magnesium and potassium. It possesses anti-inflammatory properties that can help improve thyroid functioning. You can add ginger root slices to your everyday cooking in soups and other dishes.

Vitamin B Intake

To manage and treat your hypothyroidism, take adequate amounts of B vitamins, including vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9 and B12. This will help to reduce your symptoms and generate healthy thyroid function.

Lower Carbohydrate Intake

Intake of food rich in carbs can negatively affect the thyroid gland. Lower your intake of sugars and grains and replace them with healthy fats such as, coconut oil, coconut milk, avocado, grass-fed beef, wild salmon, chia, flaxseeds, and hemp seeds. Healthy fats that will balance your hormones.